1. Answer all the questions each within one sentence. (1X10 =10 Marks)

a) When did Islam come to India?
Ans:Islam came to India in the 7th century AD, with the arrival of Arab traders and the establishment of early Islamic communities.
b) When did the realist approach strengthen in India’s foreign policy?
Ans: The realist approach strengthened in India’s foreign policy during the Cold War era, particularly after the Sino-Indian War of 1962 and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
c) When did India sign friendship treaty with Soviet Union?
Ans: India signed the Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union in August 1971.
d) When did India conduct her first nuclear test?
Ans: India conducted its first nuclear test, codenamed “Smiling Buddha,” on May 18, 1974.
e) What was the objective of the Panchsheel agreement?
Ans: The objective of the Panchsheel Agreement, also known as the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, was to establish principles for peaceful international relations, mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, primarily promoted by India and China in the 1950s.
f) What is the full form of SEATO?
Ans: The full form of SEATO is the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
g) Who are the member countries of SAARC?
Ans:  Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

h) What were the two agreements signed between India and Nepal?
Ans: The two notable agreements between India and Nepal are the India-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950 and the Mahakali Treaty signed in 1996.
i) When did “Look East Policy” sign between India and ASEAN?
Ans: The “Look East Policy” gained momentum in the 1990s, leading to India becoming a sectoral dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992, and it evolved into the “Act East Policy” in subsequent years for more proactive engagement.
j) Who is the author of the book ‘The Clash of Civilisation and the Remarking of world

Ans: The author of the book “The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order” is Samuel P. Huntington.


a) What is the realist and idealist approach of India?
Ans:India follows a realist approach in international relations, emphasizing pragmatic considerations and national interests. Simultaneously, it maintains an idealist stance by promoting principles such as democracy, human rights, and peaceful coexistence, contributing to global governance and development.
b) What is Non-alignment movement?
Ans:The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It advocates for independence, sovereignty, and non-interference, promoting cooperation among member countries. Established during the Cold War, NAM aims to ensure the interests of nations outside major power alliances.
c) What is the meaning of Disarmament?
Ans:Disarmament refers to the reduction or elimination of military forces and weapons, aiming to enhance global security and prevent armed conflicts. It involves agreements, treaties, and initiatives to limit, control, or eliminate the production, deployment, and use of weapons, with the ultimate goal of promoting peace and stability.
d) What is the meaning of ‘Diaspora’?
Ans:Diaspora refers to the dispersion or scattering of a population with common cultural or ethnic origins outside their traditional homeland. Members of a diaspora often maintain a sense of connection and identity with their original culture or community, even if they are geographically distant.


a) What are the determinants of India’s foreign policy? Define.
Ans:India’s foreign policy is shaped by multiple determinants, including:

  1. Security Concerns:

    Definition: Ensuring national security against external threats.

    Significance: India’s foreign policy is influenced by the need to safeguard its borders, counter terrorism, and maintain regional stability.

  1. Economic Interests:

    Definition: Pursuit of economic growth, trade, and investment.

    Significance: Economic considerations drive diplomatic engagements, trade agreements, and partnerships to enhance India’s economic wellbeing.

  1. Strategic Autonomy:

    Definition: Maintaining independence in decisionmaking.

    Significance: India seeks autonomy in its foreign policy decisions, avoiding alignment with any bloc and preserving its strategic independence.

  1. Regional and Global Stability:

    Definition: Contributing to stability in the region and globally.

    Significance: India aims to foster peaceful relations with neighboring countries and play a constructive role in global affairs.

  1. Cultural and Historical Ties:

    Definition: Building on historical and cultural linkages.

    Significance: Shared heritage and cultural affinities influence diplomatic ties and collaborations with countries worldwide.

  1. Multilateralism:

    Definition: Engagement in international organizations and forums.

    Significance: India values multilateralism, participating in forums like the United Nations to address global challenges and contribute to shaping international norms.

  1. Energy Security:

    Definition: Ensuring a stable and diverse energy supply.

    Significance: Securing energy resources through diplomatic engagements and partnerships is vital for India’s sustained economic growth.

  1. Soft Power Diplomacy:

    Definition: Cultural, educational, and diplomatic initiatives.

    Significance: India employs soft power to enhance its global image, using cultural exchanges, educational programs, and diplomatic initiatives.

These determinants collectively shape India’s foreign policy, reflecting a comprehensive approach that considers security, economic interests, autonomy, regional stability, cultural ties, multilateralism, energy security, and soft power diplomacy.

b) Discuss the India-China border war, highlight with recent conflict on Galwan valley.
Ans:The IndiaChina border conflict has a historical context, with the most recent escalation occurring in the Galwan Valley in 2020.


 Historical Context: The IndiaChina border dispute dates back to the 1960s, resulting in the SinoIndian War of 1962.

 Unresolved Issues: Several border areas, including the Line of Actual Control (LAC), continue to be contested, leading to sporadic tensions.

Recent Conflict  Galwan Valley (2020):

 Incident: In June 2020, a violent clash occurred between Indian and Chinese troops in the Galwan Valley, a disputed border region in the Himalayas.

 Casualties: The clash resulted in casualties on both sides, marking the first lethal confrontation between the two nations in decades.

 Disengagement Talks: Following the incident, diplomatic and military talks ensued to deescalate tensions and disengage troops.

Factors Contributing to Tensions:

  1. Territorial Disputes: Unresolved border issues and differing perceptions of the LAC contribute to tensions.
  2. Infrastructure Development: Both countries have been enhancing infrastructure along the border, raising concerns about strategic intentions.
  3. Geopolitical Competition: The broader geopolitical competition between India and China influences their approach to the border dispute.


 Strategic Significance: The border tensions have broader implications for regional stability and geopolitics in Asia.

 Global Concerns: The international community closely watches developments, given the strategic importance of both India and China.

Resolution Efforts:

 Diplomacy: Both nations engage in diplomatic talks to address the border issues and prevent further escalations.

 Military ConfidenceBuilding Measures: Confidencebuilding measures and protocols are explored to reduce the risk of inadvertent confrontations.

The IndiaChina border conflict remains a complex and sensitive issue, requiring diplomatic efforts to find a peaceful resolution and maintain regional stability. The Galwan Valley clash underscores the need for ongoing dialogue and confidencebuilding measures to manage and mitigate border tensions.

c) Discuss India-Pakistan relations with special focus to Jammu and Khasmir.
Ans:IndiaPakistan relations, particularly with regard to the longstanding issue of Jammu and Kashmir, have been complex and marked by historical, political, and territorial disputes.


 Partition and Independence (1947): The partition of British India led to the creation of India and Pakistan. The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, with a Muslimmajority population but a Hindu ruler, became a point of contention.

Key Points:

  1. Territorial Dispute:

    Jammu and Kashmir: Both India and Pakistan claim the region in its entirety, leading to a series of conflicts, including wars in 1947, 1965, and 1971.

  1. Line of Control (LoC):

    Establishment: The Line of Control was established after the 1971 war and serves as the de facto border in Kashmir.

    Tensions: Incidents along the LoC have periodically escalated tensions between the two countries.

  1. Kashmiri Autonomy and Article 370:

    Special Status: Jammu and Kashmir enjoyed special autonomy under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution until 2019.

    Abrogation: In 2019, India revoked the special status, leading to protests and an increase in tensions.

  1. CrossBorder Terrorism:

    Proxy Warfare: Pakistan has been accused of supporting and sponsoring crossborder terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir.

    Security Concerns: India contends that terrorism emanating from across the border poses a significant security challenge.

  1. Diplomatic Engagements:

    Bilateral Talks: Periodic attempts have been made to engage in bilateral talks to address outstanding issues, but progress has been slow.

  1. International Involvement:

    Global Concerns: The international community has expressed concern over tensions in the region, advocating for dialogue and peaceful resolutions.

  1. Human Rights Concerns:

    Allegations: Both India and Pakistan have faced international scrutiny for alleged human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir.

    UN Involvement: The issue has been discussed in various international forums, including the United Nations.

Current Status:

 Tensions Persist: Despite periodic diplomatic initiatives, tensions persist due to the unresolved territorial and political issues.

 Military Standoff: Military standoffs and occasional skirmishes along the LoC continue to contribute to a volatile security situation.

Challenges and Prospects:

 Security Dilemma: Security concerns, historical animosities, and the complex nature of the Kashmir dispute pose significant challenges.

 Dialogue and Diplomacy: Resolving the Kashmir issue and improving overall relations require sustained dialogue, mutual trustbuilding, and diplomatic efforts.

IndiaPakistan relations, especially regarding Jammu and Kashmir, remain a critical aspect of regional stability, with efforts toward resolution and normalization facing numerous challenges. Diplomatic initiatives, confidencebuilding measures, and international engagement are essential for addressing the underlying issues and fostering lasting peace in the region.

d) Examine the ethnic and religious movement in Sri Lanka?
Ans:Sri Lanka has witnessed various ethnic and religious movements, with the most prominent being the ethnic conflict between the Sinhalese majority and the Tamil minority. Additionally, religious movements, particularly those linked to Buddhism and its role in Sri Lankan society, have also played a significant role.

  1. Ethnic Conflict:


 SinhaleseTamil Conflict: The roots of the conflict can be traced back to historical, linguistic, and cultural differences between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil minority.

Key Points:

 Tamils’ Demand for Autonomy: Tamils, especially in the northern and eastern regions, sought autonomy and equal rights, leading to demands for a separate Tamil state, Eelam.

 LTTE Insurgency: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant group, played a central role in the armed struggle for Tamil rights, leading to a brutal civil war that lasted for decades.

 Ceasefire and End of Conflict: The conflict officially ended in 2009 after the Sri Lankan government’s military defeat of the LTTE. However, reconciliation and addressing underlying issues remain ongoing challenges.

  1. Religious Movements:

Buddhism in Sri Lanka:

 Majority Religion: Buddhism is the majority religion, with a significant influence on culture, politics, and society.

 Buddhist Revival Movements: Various movements have sought to promote and protect Buddhism, particularly in response to perceived threats or challenges.

Key Movements:

 Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism: Movements such as the Bodu Bala Sena (BBS) have advocated for the interests of Sinhala Buddhists, expressing concerns about perceived threats to Buddhism and the Sinhalese identity.

 Role in Politics: Buddhist clergy and institutions have played a role in politics, influencing policies and societal attitudes.

Challenges and Implications:

 Reconciliation Efforts: Sri Lanka faces challenges in reconciling communities after the ethnic conflict, with ongoing efforts to address the grievances of minority groups.

 Religious Harmony: Efforts are needed to promote religious harmony and address concerns related to the politicization of religion.

Current Context:

 PostCivil War Period: Sri Lanka continues to navigate the postcivil war period, addressing issues of resettlement, human rights, and inclusive governance.

 Political Developments: Political developments and policies in Sri Lanka continue to impact ethnic and religious relations, necessitating ongoing attention to promote unity and inclusivity.

The examination of ethnic and religious movements in Sri Lanka underscores the complexity of societal dynamics and the challenges associated with postconflict reconciliation and building a harmonious, inclusive society. Addressing historical grievances, ensuring equal rights, and promoting cultural understanding remain essential for longterm stability and prosperity in Sri Lanka.



a) Analyses the foreign policy of the ruling political party in India.
Ans:India’s foreign policy, influenced by various governments, aims for strategic autonomy, economic development, and global influence. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the ruling political party as of my last knowledge update in January 2022, under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has emphasized specific elements in its foreign policy:

  1. Neighborhood First Policy:

    Focus: Strengthening ties with South Asian neighbors.

    Rationale: Promoting regional stability and addressing shared challenges.

  1. Act East Policy:

    Focus: Enhancing engagement with Southeast Asia and the AsiaPacific.

    Rationale: Boosting economic ties, security cooperation, and India’s strategic presence.

  1. Balancing Relations:

    Engagement: Building strategic partnerships with major powers, including the U.S., Russia, and key Asian countries.

    Multialignment: Maintaining strategic autonomy by diversifying partnerships.

  1. Economic Diplomacy:

    Promotion: Focusing on economic diplomacy to attract investment and promote trade.

    Global Outreach: Engaging with international forums and organizations to enhance India’s economic standing.

  1. Security Concerns:

    Counterterrorism: Prioritizing regional and global counterterrorism cooperation.

    Border Issues: Addressing border security challenges, particularly with Pakistan and China.

  1. Multilateral Engagement:

    Reform Push: Advocating for reforms in international organizations like the United Nations.

    Global Governance: Seeking a greater role in global governance and decisionmaking.

  1. Digital Diplomacy:

    Technology Focus: Leveraging digital platforms for diplomatic outreach.

    Soft Power: Promoting India’s cultural and technological prowess globally.

  1. Vaccine Diplomacy:

    COVID19 Response: Providing vaccines to neighboring countries and globally.

    Global Health Leadership: Projecting India as a responsible global health partner.

  1. Climate Diplomacy:

    International Commitments: Emphasizing climate change mitigation and sustainable development.

    Global Leadership: Participating in global climate initiatives.

The BJP led government’s foreign policy reflects a mix of continuity and innovation. While continuing established principles, there’s an increased emphasis on economic diplomacy, digital outreach, and proactive global engagement, aligning with India’s aspirations for regional and global leadership.

b. Discuss India’s foreign policy with United State of America.
Ans:IndiaU.S. relations have evolved significantly, marked by cooperation in various domains. India’s foreign policy with the United States, as of my last knowledge update in January 2022, includes several key aspects:

  1. Strategic Partnership:

    Security Cooperation: The U.S. and India collaborate on counterterrorism, intelligencesharing, and defense technology.

    Quad Partnership: India is part of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) with the U.S., Japan, and Australia, focusing on regional security and economic issues.

  1. Economic Ties:

    Trade Relations: Both nations aim to enhance bilateral trade, with discussions on trade deals and addressing trade imbalances.

    Investment: Encouraging U.S. investments in India and fostering economic collaboration.

  1. Technology and Innovation:

    Defense Technology: U.S.India defense ties involve technology transfer, joint exercises, and defense deals.

    Science and Technology Cooperation: Collaborations in space exploration, cybersecurity, and advanced technologies.

  1. Diplomacy and Multilateral Engagement:

    United Nations: Coordination on global issues, including climate change, global health, and UN reforms.

    IndoPacific Strategy: Both countries share concerns about maintaining a free and open IndoPacific region.

  1. PeopletoPeople Ties:

    Educational Exchanges: Promoting student exchanges and academic collaborations.

    Diaspora Relations: Recognizing the role of the IndianAmerican community in strengthening ties.

  1. Climate Change and Environment:

    Climate Agreements: Both nations cooperate on climate change mitigation and renewable energy initiatives.

    Global Climate Leadership: Collaborating on global climate platforms.

  1. COVID19 Response:

    Vaccine Diplomacy: India and the U.S. have collaborated on vaccine production and distribution.

    Global Health Security: Joint efforts in addressing global health challenges.


    Trade Issues: Bilateral trade disputes and issues like data localization pose challenges.

    Strategic Autonomy: India seeks to maintain strategic autonomy despite deepening ties with the U.S.

IndiaU.S. relations have generally seen positive momentum, with converging interests in strategic, economic, and global governance domains. However, challenges and divergent priorities persist, requiring diplomatic efforts to address and align interests effectively. It’s essential to note that specific developments may have occurred since my last update in January 2022.


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