1. Migration terminology is used to describe the mobility of individuals from one location to another.

2. NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) organisation provides estimates of magnitude of unemployment on the basis of different concepts including usual status unemployment, current weekly status unemployment and current daily status Unemployment?

3.World Bank segregated the contribution of agricultural sector to the overall economic growth into four distinct categories namely – product contribution, market contribution, factor contribution and foreign exchange contribution.

4. “Land Ceiling legislation” is classified under State list of the scheme of distribution of legislati ve power between union and state.

5.Name an agency providing institutional credit to agricultural sector.

Ans: NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development).

6Service Sector sector among the three sectors namely service, agriculture and industrial sector is the fastest growing sector in India during the last decade.

Ans: TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) is responsible for the regulation of telecom services in India.

7.Department of Telecommunications (DoT). department is responsible for policy formulation with regard to telecom sector in India.

8.Professor P.C. Mahalanobis was the architect of Second five year plan of India

10.First Industrial Policy Resolutions (IPR) was declared in the year1948 


1.What do you mean by Occupational structure?

Ans: Occupational structure refers to the distribution of the workforce across various occupations and industries in a society. It reflects the composition of employment in terms of different types of jobs and sectors, providing insights into the diversity of economic activities.

2.Define Crude birth rate.

Ans: Crude Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population within a specific time frame, usually a year. It gives a general overview of the birth trends in a population without considering age or sex differences.

3.What do you mean by “pricing efficiency in the context of agricultural products?

Ans: Pricing efficiency in agriculture refers to the effectiveness of the pricing mechanism for agricultural products. It involves fair and transparent pricing that reflects market conditions, production costs, and ensures reasonable returns for farmers. Efficient pricing helps in balancing supply and demand, promoting sustainability, and creating a fair income for agricultural producers.

4.What do you mean by industrial sickness?

Ans: Industrial sickness refers to the condition where a industrial unit or company faces financial distress and operational difficulties to the extent that it becomes unable to meet its financial obligations, often leading to its decline or closure. Factors like mismanagement, inadequate resources, or external economic challenges can contribute to industrial sickness.

5.What do you mean by heavy industry?

Ans: Heavy industry refers to sectors of the economy that involve the production and manufacture of large, heavy goods and products, typically involving complex and capital-intensive processes. This includes industries such as steel, machinery, chemicals, and aerospace, where the production processes require significant infrastructure, machinery, and investments.

6.What do you mean by Poverty line?

Ans: The poverty line is a threshold or income level used to define the minimum income required for an individual or a family to meet their basic needs and maintain a decent standard of living. People or households earning below this line are considered to be living in poverty. The poverty line varies by country and is often determined based on factors like the cost of food, housing, education, and other essential expenses.

7.What do you mean by Regional Imbalance?

Ans: Regional imbalance refers to the uneven distribution of economic activities, resources, and development across different geographic areas within a country. It indicates disparities in infrastructure, employment opportunities, income levels, and overall development between regions. Addressing regional imbalances often involves policies and initiatives aimed at promoting more equitable distribution of resources and development opportunities to ensure balanced growth across various regions.

8.Mention any two important problems arising out of the partition of the country.

Ans: Two significant problems arising from the partition of the country were the mass migration and displacement of people between India and Pakistan, leading to communal tensions and violence. Another challenge was the division of economic assets and resources, creating economic disruptions and impacting the overall development of the newly formed nations.

9.What do you mean by BPO Services?

Ans: BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) services involve contracting out specific business processes or functions to external service providers. This can include tasks such as customer support, data entry, human resources, and other non-core functions. BPO services are commonly used by businesses to enhance efficiency, reduce costs, and focus on their core competencies while outsourcing secondary tasks to specialized service providers.

10.Distinguish between Broadband and Narrowband connection to access internet services.


Broadband and narrowband refer to the width of the data transmission channel:


  1. Broadband: Offers high-speed internet connectivity that can transmit multiple signals and data streams simultaneously. It provides faster data transfer rates, enabling efficient handling of multimedia, large files, and simultaneous connections.


  1. Narrowband: Involves a slower, narrower data transmission channel. It can transmit only a limited amount of information at a time, making it suitable for basic applications like text-based communication. It has lower data transfer rates compared to broadband.


1.What do you mean by a semi-feudal Economy?

Ans: A semi-feudal economy blends characteristics of both feudalism and modern economic structures. It features traditional agrarian practices, such as large landholdings, reminiscent of feudal societies, alongside emerging capitalist elements like market-oriented transactions and modern industries. This term is applied to describe transitional economic stages, particularly in developing countries, where a mix of traditional and contemporary economic practices coexists. The coexistence of these elements can introduce complexities, influencing issues like land distribution, labor relations, and overall economic development in these societies.

2.Discuss the different measures of mortality in brief.


Mortality, or death rates, is assessed through various measures:

  1. Crude Death Rate (CDR): It calculates the total number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population within a specific time, providing a general overview of mortality.
  2. Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR): This measures death rates within specific age groups. It offers insights into mortality patterns across different age categories.
  3. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): It focuses on deaths within the first year of life, providing a crucial indicator of the overall health and healthcare quality in a population.
  4. Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR): This assesses the probability of a child dying before reaching the age of five, emphasizing child health and well-being.
  5. Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR): It indicates the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, highlighting the risks associated with pregnancy and childbirth.
  6. Life Expectancy at Birth: This estimates the average number of years a newborn is expected to live under current mortality conditions, offering a comprehensive view of overall population health.

These measures collectively help evaluate different aspects of mortality, aiding in public health planning and policy formulation.

3.Discuss the problem of Disguised Unemployment?


Disguised unemployment refers to a situation where a significant number of people appear to be employed, but their contribution to the actual output or productivity is minimal or redundant. In such a scenario, the existing workforce is larger than what is necessary for the level of production. This issue is often observed in traditional agricultural settings where more people are engaged in farming than required due to the use of outdated methods and limited technology. The surplus labor does not contribute substantially to increased output, leading to inefficiencies in resource utilization. Disguised unemployment is a concern as it reflects underutilization of human resources, limiting economic productivity. Addressing this problem often involves implementing modern agricultural practices, promoting skill development, and facilitating shifts to more productive sectors, thereby ensuring a more efficient and sustainable use of the labor force.

4.Explain the broad objectives of Public Distribution System.


The Public Distribution System (PDS) in India has broad objectives aimed at ensuring food security and equitable distribution of essential commodities. These objectives include:

  1. Food Security: The primary goal is to provide a safety net for vulnerable sections of society by ensuring a regular and adequate supply of essential food items at affordable prices. This helps in mitigating hunger and preventing food shortages.
  2. Price Stabilization: The PDS aims to stabilize prices of essential commodities by intervening in the market through the distribution of goods at controlled prices. This helps in preventing extreme price fluctuations and making essential items accessible to all.
  3. Poverty Alleviation: By providing subsidized food items, especially to economically disadvantaged households, the PDS contributes to poverty alleviation. It ensures that even those with limited financial means can access essential food items.
  4. Rural Employment: The procurement, storage, and distribution activities associated with the PDS generate employment opportunities, particularly in rural areas. This supports economic activities and livelihoods in these regions.
  5. Buffer Stock Maintenance: The PDS involves the creation and maintenance of buffer stocks of essential commodities. This helps in managing unforeseen situations such as natural disasters, ensuring a constant supply of food even in challenging circumstances.
  6. Nutritional Support: The PDS aims to improve the nutritional status of vulnerable groups, especially women and children, by providing access to essential food items like cereals, pulses, and edible oils.

Overall, the Public Distribution System plays a crucial role in achieving social welfare objectives by ensuring a fair and efficient distribution of essential commodities, contributing to food security and poverty reduction.

5.Explain the linkages that agriculture has with other sectors


Agriculture is intricately linked with various sectors in a nation’s economy, fostering interdependence and influencing overall development. The linkages include:

  1. Agro-Processing Industry: Agriculture provides raw materials for agro-processing industries, such as food and beverage manufacturing, textiles, and wood processing. This linkage adds value to agricultural products and generates employment.
  2. Transportation: Agriculture necessitates transportation for the movement of crops from farms to markets. In turn, the transportation sector relies on agriculture for a significant portion of its cargo.
  3. Rural Employment: Agriculture is a major source of employment, especially in rural areas. The health of the agricultural sector influences employment levels and income distribution.
  4. Financial Sector: Agriculture often requires financial support for inputs like seeds, fertilizers, and machinery. Financial institutions, therefore, have linkages with agriculture through the provision of credit and banking services.
  5. Research and Development: Agricultural research contributes to improved crop varieties, technologies, and farming practices. This, in turn, benefits the broader scientific and research community.
  6. Energy Sector: Agriculture is a consumer of energy for irrigation, machinery, and agro-processing. Conversely, the energy sector may rely on agriculture for bioenergy production.
  7. Trade and Export: Agricultural products contribute significantly to a nation’s exports, affecting trade balances. The trade sector, in turn, influences the agricultural sector through market dynamics and international demand.
  8. Infrastructure Development: Agriculture necessitates infrastructure such as irrigation systems, storage facilities, and roads. Infrastructure development, in return, supports and enhances agricultural activities.

Understanding these linkages is crucial for holistic economic planning, as changes in one sector can have ripple effects across others. Policymakers often consider these interdependencies to formulate comprehensive and sustainable development strategies.

6. Provide a brief summary of the state of India’s agriculture at the time of independence?


At the time of India’s independence in 1947, the agricultural sector faced several challenges. The agrarian landscape was characterized by traditional farming methods, low productivity, and socio-economic inequalities. Large landholdings were prevalent, and the majority of farmers were smallholders with limited access to resources. The sector was plagued by issues such as tenancy disputes, lack of credit facilities, and inefficient land use. Outdated irrigation practices further hampered agricultural productivity. Additionally, there were concerns related to the equitable distribution of land and the overall socio-economic conditions of farmers. The state of agriculture reflected a need for comprehensive reforms to address these challenges. Post-independence, India initiated various agrarian reforms to modernize the sector, enhance productivity, and uplift the rural economy. Land reforms, irrigation projects, and the introduction of modern agricultural practices were among the measures undertaken to transform the agricultural landscape and improve the livelihoods of farmers. The Green Revolution in the 1960s further contributed to increased agricultural productivity, marking a pivotal phase in India’s agricultural history.

7.Highlight key differences between modern SSIs and traditional SSIs.


Modern SmallScale Industries (SSIs) and traditional SSIs differ in various aspects:

  1. Technology and Techniques:Modern SSIs: Utilize advanced technologies and modern production techniques for higher efficiency and productivity. Traditional SSIs: Rely on conventional and often laborintensive methods with limited technological integration.
  2. Scale of Production: Modern SSIs: Tend to operate on a larger scale with the capacity for mass production. Traditional SSIs: Typically smaller in scale and may focus on localized or traditional methods.
  3. Market Orientation:  Modern SSIs: Often have a global or broader market orientation, leveraging technology for wider reach.
  4. Traditional SSIs: Primarily cater to local or niche markets, with limited exposure beyond their immediate vicinity.
  5. Capital Investment: Modern SSIs: Involve higher capital investment in advanced machinery, technology, and infrastructure. Traditional SSIs: Have relatively lower capital investment and may rely more on manual labor.
  6. Product Range:

    Modern SSIs: Diversify into a broader range of products, sometimes with a focus on innovation.

    Traditional SSIs: Tend to specialize in specific products often rooted in local or traditional craftsmanship.

  1. Market Access:

    Modern SSIs: Benefit from advanced marketing strategies, online platforms, and global supply chains.

    Traditional SSIs: May face challenges in accessing larger markets due to limited marketing capabilities.

  1. Labor Intensity:

    Modern SSIs: Emphasize skilled labor for operating advanced machinery and technology.

    Traditional SSIs: Often rely on unskilled or semiskilled labor for manual production processes.

Understanding these differences is crucial for policymakers and businesses to adapt strategies that suit the specific characteristics of either modern or traditional SSIs.

8.What is TRAI? What are its Responsibilities?


TRAI, or the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, is an autonomous regulatory body established to oversee the telecommunications industry in India. Its responsibilities include:

  1. Regulation and Oversight: TRAI formulates regulations and policies to ensure fair competition, consumer protection, and the growth of the telecommunications sector.
  2. Spectrum Management: TRAI manages the allocation and efficient utilization of radio frequency spectrum, a crucial resource for wireless communication services.
  3. Licensing: TRAI issues licenses to telecom service providers and regulates compliance with licensing conditions.
  4. Tariff Regulation: TRAI regulates tariffs and ensures that they are reasonable, transparent, and non-discriminatory, promoting fair competition.
  5. Quality of Service: TRAI monitors and enforces standards for the quality of telecom services to ensure customer satisfaction.
  6. Consumer Protection: TRAI works to protect the interests of telecom consumers by addressing grievances, promoting transparency, and ensuring the quality of services.
  7. Promotion of Competition: TRAI encourages competition in the telecom sector to prevent monopolistic practices and promote innovation.
  8. Research and Development: TRAI conducts research and analysis to stay abreast of technological developments and make informed recommendations for the industry’s growth.

9.Give a brief note on different types of activities classified under industrial sector.


The industrial sector encompasses a diverse range of economic activities, broadly classified into three main types:

  1. Primary Industry:

   Mining and Quarrying: Involves the extraction of minerals, metals, and other geological materials from the Earth.

   Farming and Agriculture: Includes activities related to cultivating crops, raising livestock, and producing raw agricultural products.

  1. Secondary Industry:

   Manufacturing: Involves the transformation of raw materials into finished goods through processes like processing, assembling, and crafting.

   Construction: Encompasses the building of infrastructure, residential and commercial structures, and other engineering projects.

  1. Tertiary Industry:

   Services: This includes a wide range of service-oriented activities such as banking, healthcare, education, tourism, entertainment, and IT services.

   Utilities: Involves the production and distribution of essential services like electricity, water, and gas.

These classifications help in understanding the diverse economic activities that contribute to the industrial sector. The primary sector provides raw materials, the secondary sector processes them into goods, and the tertiary sector offers services, collectively driving economic growth and development.

10. How manufacturing activity is classified into various subgroups in terms of its end use.


Manufacturing activity is classified into various subgroups based on its enduse through the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in the United States. The classification includes:

  1. Durable Goods Manufacturing:

    Aerospace and Defense: Production of aircraft, missiles, and related components.

    Automotive: Manufacturing of motor vehicles and parts.

    Machinery: Production of industrial machinery and equipment.

    Electronics: Manufacturing of electronic goods and equipment.

  1. NonDurable Goods Manufacturing:

    Food and Beverage: Processing of food products and beverages.

    Textiles and Apparel: Manufacturing of textiles, clothing, and related products.

    Chemicals: Production of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics.

  1. HighTech Industries:

    Computer and Electronic Products: Manufacturing of computers, semiconductors, and electronic components.

    Electrical Equipment and Appliances: Production of electrical equipment and household appliances.

  1. Miscellaneous Manufacturing:

    Furniture: Manufacturing of furniture and related products.

    Paper and Printing: Production of paper products and printing services.

    Wood Products: Manufacturing of wood and related products.

These subgroups provide a detailed classification of manufacturing activities, enabling policymakers, analysts, and businesses to understand the composition of the manufacturing sector and make informed decisions based on specific industry segments.




1.What do you mean by demographic transition? Discuss various stages of demographic transition?


Demographic transition refers to the process through which a society undergoes changes in its population growth patterns, transitioning from high birth rates and death rates to lower ones. This transition is typically associated with economic and social development and is characterized by distinct stages:


  1. Stage 1 High Stationary:

    Characteristics: Both birth rates and death rates are high, leading to slow population growth.

    Factors: Limited access to healthcare, high infant mortality, and reliance on agriculture characterize this stage.

  1. Stage 2 Early Expanding:

    Characteristics: Death rates start to decline due to improved healthcare, sanitation, and food production, leading to rapid population growth.

    Factors: Better living conditions, healthcare advancements, and increased food supply contribute to the population increase.

  1. Stage 3 Late Expanding:

    Characteristics: Birth rates decline as society undergoes industrialization and urbanization.

    Factors: Increased education, particularly for women, and changing societal norms contribute to smaller family sizes.

  1. Stage 4 Low Stationary:

    Characteristics: Both birth and death rates are low, resulting in slow or zero population growth.

    Factors: Industrialization, urbanization, access to family planning, and a shift to a service based economy contribute to demographic stability.

  1. Stage 5 Decline:

    Characteristics: Birth rates fall below death rates, leading to population decline.

    Factors: Aging populations, lower fertility rates, and societal changes contribute to a declining population.

These stages illustrate the evolving dynamics of a population’s growth, reflecting the interplay of socioeconomic factors, healthcare, and cultural changes. The demographic transition model provides valuable insights for policymakers addressing challenges associated with population growth, aging, and sustainable development.

2.Explain the role of credit in traditional agriculture and modern agriculture in India.


Traditional Agriculture:

In traditional agriculture in India, credit played a crucial role as farmers often lacked sufficient capital for inputs like seeds, fertilizers, and equipment. The credit needs were typically met through informal channels, including moneylenders and local traders. However, this system often led to exploitative practices with highinterest rates, trapping farmers in debt cycles.

Modern Agriculture:

In modern agriculture, the role of credit has evolved significantly. Formal financial institutions like banks and cooperatives play a vital role in providing credit to farmers. Government initiatives, such as Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) and agricultural loans, aim to enhance financial inclusion and support farmers in accessing credit at reasonable interest rates. Additionally, microfinance institutions cater to the credit needs of small and marginal farmers.


  1. Accessibility: Despite improvements, some farmers, especially in remote areas, still face challenges in accessing formal credit institutions.
  2. Indebtedness: While formal credit has advantages, overreliance or mismanagement can lead to increased indebtedness.


  1. Input Purchase: Credit enables farmers to invest in quality seeds, fertilizers, and machinery, enhancing productivity.
  2. Risk Management: Access to credit helps farmers manage risks associated with crop failure, ensuring financial stability.
  3. Technology Adoption: Farmers can adopt modern agricultural practices and technologies with financial support.

In both traditional and modern agriculture, credit remains a critical factor influencing farmers’ ability to invest in their farms. The shift towards formal credit institutions in modern agriculture aims to provide more sustainable and equitable financial support to farmers, fostering agricultural growth and rural development.

3.State the key features of New Industrial Policy, 1991.

Ans:  The New Industrial Policy of 1991 was a landmark economic reform in India that aimed to liberalize and revitalize the industrial sector. Key features include:

  1. Liberalization: The policy marked a shift from the previous era of strict industrial controls. It embraced liberalization measures to promote efficiency, competition, and private sector participation.
  2. Deregulation: Industrial licensing requirements were significantly reduced, and several industries were delicensed, allowing for greater freedom in establishing and expanding businesses.
  3. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): FDI was encouraged by easing restrictions, promoting collaborations, and allowing higher levels of foreign equity participation in various sectors.
  4. Public Sector Reforms: The policy emphasized strategic disinvestment in public sector enterprises to enhance efficiency and competitiveness.
  5. Trade Policy Reforms: Import restrictions were reduced, and tariffs were rationalized to integrate the Indian economy with global markets. This move aimed to boost exports and improve competitiveness.
  6. Technology Upgradation: Incentives were introduced to encourage technology upgrades, fostering modernization and innovation in industries.
  7. Monetary and Fiscal Measures: Measures were taken to control inflation, rationalize interest rates, and implement fiscal reforms to create a conducive environment for industrial growth.
  8. SmallScale Industries: The policy supported the growth of smallscale industries through financial assistance, technology upgradation, and market access.
  9. Competition Policy: Antitrust measures were introduced to prevent monopolistic practices and promote fair competition in the market.
  10. Environmental Regulations: The policy incorporated environmental considerations, emphasizing sustainable and responsible industrial practices.

The New Industrial Policy of 1991 was a pivotal step in India’s economic transformation, opening up the economy to global influences, encouraging entrepreneurship, and fostering a more competitive and dynamic industrial landscape.

4.Explain the factors contributing towards faster growth in the service Sector? When do you think the service led growth would be sustainable?


Factors Contributing to Faster Growth in the Service Sector:

  1. Technological Advancements: Rapid advancements in technology, especially in communication and information technology, have facilitated the growth of servicebased industries, enabling seamless global connectivity.
  2. Globalization: Increased globalization has expanded markets and created opportunities for service providers to offer their services globally, leading to increased demand.
  3. Changing Consumer Preferences: Evolving consumer preferences, characterized by a shift towards convenience, personalized services, and digital experiences, have driven the growth of service sectors like ecommerce, healthcare, and entertainment.
  4. Knowledge Economy: The service sector thrives in a knowledgebased economy where intellectual skills and expertise are highly valued, leading to the growth of industries such as IT, consultancy, and education.
  5. Urbanization: As urbanization accelerates, the demand for various services such as healthcare, education, entertainment, and hospitality increases, driving the growth of the service sector.

Sustainability of ServiceLed Growth:

The sustainability of serviceled growth depends on several factors:

  1. Investment in Human Capital: Continued investment in education, training, and skill development is crucial to maintain a skilled workforce that can drive innovation and excellence in service industries.
  2. Infrastructure Development: Adequate infrastructure, especially in terms of digital connectivity, is essential for sustained growth in the service sector.
  3. Regulatory Environment: A conducive regulatory environment that promotes fair competition, protects consumers, and encourages innovation is vital for the sustained growth of the service sector.
  4. Adaptability to Technology: Continuous adaptation and incorporation of emerging technologies are essential to stay competitive and meet evolving consumer demands.
  5. Global Economic Conditions: Given the global nature of many service industries, the sustainability of growth is influenced by stable global economic conditions and international trade relationships.
  6. Social and Environmental Responsibility: Incorporating social and environmental responsibility practices enhances the longterm sustainability of serviceled growth by addressing societal and environmental challenges.

Sustainable serviceled growth requires a holistic approach that considers economic, social, and environmental dimensions, along with the ability to adapt to changing global and technological landscapes.






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