1.What is Black Death? Ans: Plague.

2.Which time period is known as the Age of Exploration? Ans: 15th-17th century.

3.What do you mean by feudalism? Ans: Medieval social system.

4.In which century Europe witnessed economic recovery? Ans: 16th century.

5.Who was Marco Polo? Ans; Explorer.

6.Who coined the term commercial revolution? Ans: Economic historian.

7.In which year Columbus landed in his America? Ans: 1492

8.Who were labeled as the Hugenots? Ans: French Protestants.

9.What is Henry Martin’s view on feudalism? Ans: Marxist interpretation.

10.Who is the author of “Mundus Novus?” Ans: Amerigo Vespucci.


1.Which law of 1542 was known as New Laws?

Ans: The New Laws of 1542 were a set of regulations issued by King Charles I of Spain for the governance of its colonies in the Americas, aimed at improving the treatment of indigenous people.

2.What do you mean by New England?

Ans: New England refers to a region in the northeastern part of the United States, known for its early European settlements, including the Pilgrims and Puritans, and played a significant role in American history, particularly during the colonial period.

 What was Reconquista?

3) Briefly discuss Enslaved Labor in Mining.
Ans: Enslaved labor in mining refers to the historical practice of using enslaved individuals to extract minerals and resources from mines. This exploitation was prevalent during periods of colonialism and contributed significantly to the economic prosperity of empires, but it also involved severe human rights abuses and exploitation of enslaved people in hazardous working conditions.
4) Elucidate Cash Crops and Agricultural Potential.

Ans; Cash crops are crops grown primarily for sale and profit rather than personal consumption. They have economic value and include crops like cotton, tobacco, and coffee. Agricultural potential refers to the capacity of a region or area to produce various crops based on its natural resources, climate, and soil conditions, influencing the types of crops that can be cultivated for optimal yields and economic returns.
5) Cast light on Wealth Accumulation and Capital Formation.
Ans: Wealth accumulation is the process of acquiring assets, resources, and financial holdings over time. Capital formation, on the other hand, involves the development and increase of physical and financial capital in an economy, including investments in machinery, infrastructure, and human capital. Both concepts are essential for economic growth and development, as they contribute to increased productivity and prosperity.
6) The slave trade was developed by which two countries?
Ans; The slave trade was notably developed by Portugal and Spain during the Age of Exploration, with both countries heavily involved in the transportation and exploitation of enslaved individuals from Africa and other regions.
7) In which year Haitian slave revolution began?

Ans: The Haitian slave revolution began in 1791.

8) What was enslavement?
Ans: Enslavement refers to the act of capturing, buying, or forcing individuals into a condition of slavery, where they are considered legal property and deprived of their basic human rights.
9) What is the other name of Renaissance and it first originated in which country?
Ans: The Renaissance is also known as the “Rebirth,” and it first originated in Italy.






a) Feudalism declined in which centuries? Ans: 15th-16th.
b) In which century Great Famine occurred in Europe? Ans: 14th.
C)What was Trade Fair? Ans: Marketplace.

d)Was Karl Marx in favor of feudalism? Ans: No.
e)Who was Paul Swezy? Ans: Economist.

f) What was the major product used in textile industries in medieval age? Ans: Wool.
g) Which time period is known as the Age of Exploration? Ans: 15th-17th century.
h) Medieval towns were of what type? Ans: Boroughs.
i)What was Viles De Bourgeosie? Ans: Urban dwellers.
j) Who was Vasco de Gama? Ans; Explorer.


a)Who were the major European explorers?
Ans: Major European explorers included Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco da Gama, and Hernán Cortés, who played key roles in the Age of Exploration, expanding European knowledge of the world.
b) Which navigator initiated the enterprise of the Age of Discovery?

Ans: Prince Henry the Navigator initiated the enterprise of the Age of Discovery in the 15th century.

c)In which year Dinis Dias reached Senegal?
Ans: Dinis Dias reached Senegal in the year 1444.
d)In which year Columbus started his voyage?
Ans: Christopher Columbus started his first voyage in the year 1492.
e)Who is the author of Briefe Summe of Geographie?
Ans: Walter Raleigh.
f) Cast light on Wealth Accumulation and Capital Formation.

Ans: Wealth accumulation involves the process of amassing assets and financial resources over time. Capital formation refers to the creation and increase of physical and financial capital in an economy, including investments in infrastructure, machinery, and human capital, contributing to economic growth and development.

g) What was Renaissance spirit?
Ans: The Renaissance spirit was characterized by a renewed interest in classical learning, humanism, art, literature, and scientific inquiry. It emphasized a revival of cultural and intellectual pursuits, celebrating human potential and achievements.
h) Francis Drake was from which country?
Ans: England.
i) What was Columbian Exchange?
Ans: The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World following Christopher Columbus’s voyages in 1492.
j) In which year and who issued Inner Caetera?
Ans: Inner Caetera was issued by Pope Alexander VI in 1493.



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