a) The State conducts relation with other States through its foreign policy.

b) Tashkent Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan

c) Bangladesh became an Independent State after Bangladesh Liberation War .

d) Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan.

e) NAM has started in India during the Primeministership of Jawaharlal Nehru

f) BJP Government established National Security Council in the year 1988.

g) India promptly recognized the New Communist Regime of China on December 30,1949

h) The Suez Canal issue was started between India and US in the year 1956.

i) Soviet Union was disintegrated in the year 1991.

j) India got membership for the first time in an International Organization from the year 1920.


(a) Define the Principle of Panchsheel.
Ans: The Principle of Panchsheel, established in 1954 between India and China, emphasizes mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-aggression, non-interference in internal affairs, equality, and peaceful coexistence. It aimed to foster peaceful relations between the two nations.
(b) Non-Alignment Movement
Ans: The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It promotes independent decision-making, mutual respect, and global peace. Formed during the Cold War, it aims to ensure sovereignty and prevent alignment with any superpower.
(c) Why India take keen interest for the establishment of NIEO ?
Ans: India took a keen interest in the establishment of the New International Economic Order (NIEO) to address economic inequalities, promote development, and ensure fair terms of trade. It aimed to rectify historical imbalances, particularly benefiting developing nations like India, by advocating for a more just and equitable global economic system.
(d) What is the Main aim of India-West Asia Relations ?
Ans:The main aim of India-West Asia relations is to enhance economic cooperation, strengthen strategic partnerships, and foster cultural ties between India and the countries in the West Asian region. Energy security, trade, and regional stability are key components of this relationship.


(a) Define the Objective of India’s Foreign Policy.
Ans:India’s foreign policy objectives are multifaceted, reflecting its diverse interests on the global stage. The primary goals include safeguarding national security, promoting economic development, ensuring a peaceful international environment, and fostering friendly relations. India aims to pursue an independent foreign policy, maintaining strategic autonomy while engaging with the international community. Security concerns involve managing borders and addressing threats, with a focus on countering terrorism. Economic objectives center around attracting investments, fostering trade partnerships, and ensuring energy security. India strives to play a constructive role in global affairs, advocating for multilateralism, sustainable development, and addressing climate change. Cultural diplomacy is integral, promoting India’s rich heritage and soft power. India’s commitment to international law, human rights, and social justice is evident in its global engagements. Building strategic partnerships with key nations and participating in international organizations further align with its foreign policy objectives. Overall, India seeks a peaceful and stable world order, contributing to global governance while safeguarding its national interests. The pursuit of a rules-based international system and cooperative diplomacy underpins India’s foreign policy, reflecting a commitment to a multipolar world and regional stability.

(b Relationship between India-Bhutan .
Ans: The relationship between India and Bhutan is characterized by historical, cultural, and geographical ties, making it unique and robust. These ties are based on principles of friendship, cooperation, and mutual respect. Historically, Bhutan has looked to India for support and guidance. The Treaty of Friendship between India and Bhutan, signed in 1949, forms the bedrock of their relations. Under this treaty, both countries pledge to consult each other on foreign policy matters and not allow interference in each other’s internal affairs. India has played a significant role in Bhutan’s development, providing economic assistance, technical expertise, and aid for infrastructure projects. Bhutan’s hydropower sector, in particular, has seen substantial Indian investment and collaboration. Culturally, India and Bhutan share deep-rooted ties, with Buddhism playing a significant role in connecting the two nations. People-to-people interactions are facilitated through educational exchanges, tourism, and cultural events. Strategically, Bhutan’s location is crucial for India’s security interests. Both countries collaborate on regional and global issues, reinforcing their commitment to mutual cooperation. In summary, the relationship between India and Bhutan is characterized by a strong sense of friendship, mutual trust, and shared values, making it one of the closest and most enduring partnerships in the region.

(c) Briefly explain how India’s foreign policy has been quest for place through UN.

Ans: India’s foreign policy has consistently sought a significant global role through active participation in the United Nations (UN). This quest for a place on the global stage is evident in several ways.

  1. Multilateral Diplomacy: India values the UN as a platform for multilateral diplomacy. It actively engages in various UN bodies, committees, and forums to address global challenges such as climate change, terrorism, and peacekeeping.
  2. Peacekeeping Contributions: India is one of the largest contributors to UN peacekeeping forces, reflecting its commitment to maintaining international peace and security. Indian peacekeepers have served in various conflict zones, earning recognition for their professionalism and dedication.
  3. Advocacy for Reform: India has consistently advocated for reforming the UN Security Council to make it more representative and reflective of contemporary geopolitical realities. It seeks a permanent seat on the Security Council, emphasizing the need for inclusivity in global decision-making.
  4. Global Development Initiatives: India actively participates in UN-led development initiatives, contributing to global efforts to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It collaborates on issues such as poverty alleviation, healthcare, and education.
  5. Human Rights and Justice: India engages in discussions on human rights at the UN, emphasizing its commitment to democratic values and social justice. It actively participates in the work of various UN bodies addressing human rights concerns.

(d) What was India’s role in G-20 Meeting ?

Ans: India, as a member of the G20 (Group of Twenty), plays an active role in shaping global economic policies and addressing key challenges. The G20 is a forum for major economies to discuss and coordinate on international financial stability and sustainable development.

India’s role in G20 meetings includes:

  1. Economic Cooperation: India engages in discussions on global economic issues, such as trade, investment, and financial stability. It collaborates with other G20 members to address challenges and promote inclusive economic growth.
  2. Development Agenda: India advocates for the inclusion of a development agenda in G20 discussions, emphasizing the need to address issues related to poverty, healthcare, and education. It seeks solutions that benefit not only major economies but also developing nations.
  3. Climate Change: India participates in discussions related to climate change and sustainable development within the G20 framework. It emphasizes the importance of a collective approach to tackle environmental challenges.
  4. Global Governance Reform: India supports discussions on reforming global governance institutions, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, to better reflect contemporary realities and provide fair representation to emerging economies.
  5. Coordinated Response to Crises: In times of global economic crises or emergencies, the G20 serves as a platform for coordinating responses. India actively engages in discussions to address economic challenges and promote financial stability.




(a) What are the major determinants of India’s Foreign Policy?

Ans: India’s foreign policy is shaped by various determinants, reflecting its strategic interests and evolving global dynamics. The major determinants include:

  1. National Security: Ensuring the country’s security is a primary determinant. India’s foreign policy aims to safeguard its borders, counter terrorism, and address regional security challenges.
  2. Economic Interests: Economic considerations play a crucial role. India seeks to foster economic growth through international trade, investments, and technological collaborations. Energy security is a key aspect, influencing relationships with resource-rich nations.
  3. Strategic Autonomy: India values its strategic autonomy and pursues a non-aligned foreign policy. It aims to maintain independence in decision-making and not align exclusively with any major power bloc.
  4. Regional Stability: India’s foreign policy seeks to promote stability in its neighborhood. Constructive engagement with South Asian nations and addressing regional issues are priorities.
  5. Global Governance: India actively participates in global governance forums like the United Nations. It advocates for reforms to make international institutions more representative and inclusive.
  6. Cultural and Historical Ties: Historical and cultural affinities influence foreign relations. India leverages shared heritage, particularly with neighboring countries, to strengthen diplomatic ties.
  7. Soft Power and Public Diplomacy: India employs soft power through cultural exchanges, educational initiatives, and people-to-people connections to enhance its global image and build diplomatic goodwill.
  8. Human Rights and Democracy: India supports international efforts to uphold human rights and democratic principles. Its foreign policy aligns with these values while engaging with the global community.

(b) Examine the key factors responsible for motivating India-Russia relation after 1991.


India-Russia relations have been characterized by historical ties and strategic cooperation, and several key factors have motivated their relationship after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991:

  1. Strategic Partnership Continuity: Despite the geopolitical changes in the post-Cold War era, India and Russia maintained their strategic partnership. Historical trust and shared strategic interests, including defense and security, have been pivotal in sustaining the relationship.
  2. Defense and Military Cooperation: India has historically been a significant purchaser of Russian defense equipment. The continued military cooperation, including joint exercises and technology transfers, has strengthened bilateral ties. The long-standing defense relationship provides both countries with a sense of security and mutual dependence.
  3. Commonality in Global Issues: India and Russia share common perspectives on global issues, including multipolarity, non-interference, and the importance of a rules-based international order. They often collaborate in international forums to address common concerns and advocate for their shared values.
  4. Energy Cooperation: Russia’s role as a major energy exporter aligns with India’s growing energy demands. Energy cooperation, particularly in the oil and gas sector, has been a significant factor in their post-1991 relations.
  5. Economic Ties and Diversification: While economic ties have not been as robust as other aspects of the relationship, both countries have recognized the need to diversify and enhance economic cooperation. Efforts to boost trade, investment, and technology collaboration have been ongoing.
  6. Cultural and People-to-People Ties: Historical and cultural affinities continue to foster people-to-people ties. Educational and cultural exchanges contribute to a positive public perception in both nations.
  7. Counterbalance to Changing Alliances: As India pursued closer ties with the West, maintaining a strong partnership with Russia provided a counterbalance and diversified India’s strategic engagements.


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