(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar  is regarded as the Father of the Indian Constitution.

(b) Raja Rammohan Roy supported Brahmo Samaj Movement in Bengal.

(c) What is Manusmriti ? Ans: Manusmriti is an ancient legal text and one of the earliest Hindu scriptures that outlines codes of conduct and social norms.

(d) Who founded the Arya Samaj ? Ans: Swami Dayananda Saraswati 

(e)Where one may find reference to Matsyanyaya ? Ans:  legal and political philosophy

(f) Sri Aurobindowrote the Book ‘The Ideal of Human Unity ’.

(g) Jay Prakash Narayan was associated with Total Revolution.

(h) Raja Rammohan Roy is regarded as the Father of Indian Renaissance.

(i)) Ramakrishna Mission was set up by Vivekananda in the year 1897.

(j) Arya Mahila Samaj was founded by Ramabai for upliftment and education of women.


(a) What is the view of Ramabai on Caste System?
Ans: Ramabai vehemently opposed the caste system, considering it discriminatory and oppressive. She advocated for social reforms, education, and upliftment of women, promoting gender equality and challenging the traditional caste-based hierarchy.
(b) Discuss briefly Vivekananda’s views on Nationalism.
Ans; Vivekananda emphasized a spiritually rooted nationalism, urging Indians to embrace their cultural heritage. He believed that a revitalized, self-confident India could contribute to the world. His nationalism was inclusive, transcending religious and caste barriers, fostering a united, strong nation based on spiritual and ethical principles.
(c) What is Economic Democracy of Jaya Prakash Narayan?
Ans; Jaya Prakash Narayan’s concept of Economic Democracy envisioned decentralized economic planning, empowering local communities and cooperative structures. He advocated for participatory decision-making, equitable distribution of resources, and minimizing economic disparities. Narayan aimed to create a system that prioritized social welfare and provided opportunities for all citizens to participate in economic activities.
(d) Why Socialism was accepted by Lohia as a ‘Middle Path’ ?

Ans: Lohia viewed socialism as a ‘middle path’ because he sought a balance between capitalism and communism. He believed in socialist principles to address economic inequalities but opposed extreme centralization. Lohia’s vision of socialism included decentralized planning, emphasis on individual rights, and fostering a cooperative economy, steering a middle course.


(a) Liberalism in Rammohan Roy’s philosophy

Raja Rammohan Roy’s philosophy displayed liberal principles in various aspects. He advocated for religious and social reforms, promoting a liberal interpretation of Hinduism. Rammohan Roy criticized oppressive practices such as Sati and advocated for women’s rights, aligning with liberal values of individual freedom and equality. His efforts towards the abolition of Sati showcased a commitment to human rights and a liberal outlook that rejected regressive customs. Rammohan Roy also engaged with Western liberal thought, incorporating ideas of rationalism and individual rights into his reformist agenda. Furthermore, his establishment of the Brahmo Samaj reflected a liberal approach to spirituality, emphasizing monotheism, reason, and ethical living over ritualistic practices. Rammohan Roy’s engagement with liberal ideals contributed to the broader social and religious reforms in 19th-century India, showcasing a synthesis of liberal thought with his commitment to social progress and human dignity.

(b) Jaya Prakash Narayan’s ideas on Total Revolution

Jaya Prakash Narayan (JP) introduced the concept of “Total Revolution” during the 1970s in India. His idea was a comprehensive transformation of society, politics, and the economy, aiming at addressing systemic issues and empowering the common people. JP advocated for a non-violent, people-centric movement to bring about radical changes. He emphasized the need for moral and ethical values in politics, urging politicians to serve the public selflessly. JP’s Total Revolution sought to decentralize power, emphasizing grassroots governance and local self-reliance. Economically, JP proposed a model that focused on equitable distribution of resources, rural development, and social justice. He envisioned a political system where power would be more decentralized and accountable, reducing corruption and enhancing public participation. JP’s Total Revolution gained momentum during the mid-1970s, especially during the anti-corruption movement against the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. While the movement did not achieve its intended goals immediately, it had a significant impact on Indian politics, inspiring future movements for democratic and systemic reforms. In summary, Jaya Prakash Narayan’s Total Revolution was a call for a holistic transformation in the political, social, and economic spheres, with an emphasis on moral values, decentralization, and the empowerment of ordinary citizens.

(c) Four Pole State Planning of Lohia

Ans: Ram Manohar Lohia’s concept of “Four Pole State Planning” was a unique economic model aimed at decentralizing power and promoting regional autonomy. Lohia envisioned four centers of power or poles in the economic planning process:

  1. Central Government:

    Responsibilities included defense, foreign affairs, and overall national planning.

    Ensured coordination and collaboration among the four poles.

  1. State Governments:

    Managed economic planning and development at the state level.

    Focused on addressing regional disparities and promoting local industries.

  1. Local Bodies:

   Empowered local bodies, such as municipalities and panchayats, to engage in micro-level planning.

   Aimed at grassroots development and ensuring community participation.

  1. Cooperative Sector:

    Emphasized the role of cooperatives in economic activities.

    Encouraged cooperative enterprises to foster a sense of community ownership and shared benefits.

Lohia’s Four Pole State Planning sought to distribute economic and administrative power more evenly, avoiding excessive centralization. This approach aimed at achieving balanced regional development, empowering local communities, and promoting cooperative economic structures. By incorporating both decentralized and cooperative elements, Lohia aimed to create a more inclusive and participatory model of economic planning in India.
(d) Principles of Swaraj of Gandhiji

Ans: Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of “Swaraj” (selfrule) was based on several principles that emphasized individual and community empowerment, nonviolence, and ethical governance. Some key principles of Gandhian Swaraj include:

  1. NonViolence (Ahimsa):

    Ahimsa was central to Gandhi’s philosophy, advocating for nonviolent resistance even in the face of oppression.

    The idea was to transform adversaries through love and compassion.

  1. Satyagraha:

    Satyagraha, or the pursuit of truth through nonviolent means, was a method of resistance against injustice.

    It involved civil disobedience and passive resistance to challenge oppressive systems.

  1. Sarvodaya (Welfare of All):

    Swaraj, for Gandhi, meant the welfare of all individuals and communities.

    He envisioned a society where the wellbeing of the weakest was prioritized.

  1. Decentralization:

    Gandhian Swaraj emphasized decentralized governance, with power vested in local communities.

    The idea was to empower individuals to take charge of their own affairs.

  1. SelfSufficiency (Swadeshi):

    Gandhi advocated for economic selfsufficiency and the promotion of local industries.

    Swadeshi movement aimed at reducing dependence on foreign goods.

  1. Simple Living (Sarvodaya):

    Gandhi promoted a life of simplicity and minimalism, advocating for selfrestraint and austerity.

    This principle aimed at reducing materialism and promoting spiritual values.

  1. Political and Economic Equality:

    Gandhian Swaraj aimed at achieving both political and economic equality.

    He sought to eliminate social and economic disparities for a just and harmonious society.

Gandhi’s principles of Swaraj were deeply intertwined with his spiritual and ethical beliefs, emphasizing the importance of moral values, selfdiscipline, and a commitment to social justice in the pursuit of selfrule.


(a) Examine the concept of Humanism of Vivekananda.

Ans: Swami Vivekananda’s concept of humanism is deeply rooted in his interpretation of Vedanta, which emphasizes the divinity within each individual. Vivekananda’s humanism is characterized by several key elements:

  1. Divine Essence in Every Being:

   Vivekananda believed in the intrinsic divinity of every individual. He asserted that recognizing the divine spark within oneself and others is crucial for personal and collective well-being.

  1. Universal Brotherhood:

   Central to Vivekananda’s humanism is the idea of universal brotherhood. He envisioned a world where individuals transcend barriers of nationality, religion, and race, recognizing their common humanity.

  1. Service to Humanity:

   Vivekananda emphasized selfless service (seva) as a means of worshiping the divine in others. He believed that helping those in need and working for the welfare of society were integral to spiritual growth.

  1. Dignity and Equality:

   Humanism, according to Vivekananda, involves recognizing the inherent dignity and equality of all individuals. He advocated for social justice, the upliftment of the oppressed, and the removal of societal inequalities.

  1. Harmony of Religions:

   Vivekananda promoted the idea that all religions lead to the same ultimate truth. He envisioned a harmonious coexistence of different faiths, fostering mutual respect and understanding among people of diverse beliefs.

  1. Optimism and Self-Realization:

   Vivekananda’s humanism is optimistic, focusing on the potential for spiritual realization and self-improvement in every individual. He encouraged individuals to realize their innate divinity through self-discipline and self-discovery.

In essence, Vivekananda’s humanism is a spiritual and universalistic philosophy that celebrates the oneness of humanity, transcending superficial differences. It encourages individuals to embrace a life of compassion, service, and self-realization for the collective upliftment of society.

(b) Analyse Gandhi’s concept of Swadeshi.

Ans: Gandhi’s concept of Swadeshi was a pivotal aspect of his philosophy and played a crucial role in India’s struggle for independence. Swadeshi, meaning “of one’s own country” in Sanskrit, encompassed various dimensions:

  1. Economic Self-Reliance:

   Swadeshi in the economic sphere emphasized the promotion of indigenous industries and goods. Gandhi advocated boycotting British-made products and encouraging the use of hand-spun and handwoven textiles (Khadi) as a symbol of self-reliance.

  1. Decentralized Economy:

   Gandhi envisioned a decentralized economic structure, with each village being self-sufficient in meeting its basic needs. This approach aimed at reducing dependency on centralized industries and empowering local communities.

  1. Cultural and Moral Dimension:

   Swadeshi, for Gandhi, was not just an economic strategy but a cultural and moral imperative. He believed that economic choices should align with ethical values and cultural identity. Swadeshi represented a way of life rooted in simplicity and sustainability.

  1. Political Statement:

   Swadeshi was a potent political tool in India’s fight against British colonialism. Boycotting foreign goods and promoting indigenous products became a form of protest, expressing resistance to British economic exploitation.

  1. Community Empowerment:

   Gandhi saw Swadeshi as a means to empower local communities economically. By encouraging small-scale industries and local craftsmanship, he aimed to create employment opportunities and improve the economic conditions of villages.

  1. Spiritual and Social Transformation:

   Swadeshi had a spiritual dimension in Gandhi’s philosophy. He believed that economic choices should align with spiritual principles, fostering a sense of interconnectedness and promoting a more just and equitable society.

In conclusion, Gandhi’s concept of Swadeshi was a holistic and transformative approach encompassing economic, cultural, political, and spiritual dimensions. It symbolized a path towards self-sufficiency, community empowerment, and the assertion of India’s identity in the face of colonial oppression.

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