(a) Joseph E. Stiglitz is the author of ‘Making Globalization Work’.

(b) WTO is serving as the successor to General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

(c) First NAM Conference was held in Belgrade in the year 1961.

(d) Anthony Giddens said “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant
localities in such way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away
and vice versa”.

(e) The Rio Summit was held in the year 1992.

(f) In the year 1997 Kyoto Protocol was adopted.

(g) UNFCCC stands for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

(h) UNDP published Human Development Report.

(i)  Dwight D. Eisenhower enunciate ‘Atoms for Peace’ programme before the UN.

(j) 2023 UN Climate Change Conference is held in December,2023 at Dubai,UAE


(a) What is International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) ?
Ans: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy, monitors nuclear activities globally, and works to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. It operates under the auspices of the United Nations.
(b) What is Global Village?
Ans: The term “Global Village” refers to the interconnectedness of the world, where advancements in communication and technology have reduced distances, making the world seem like a closely-knit community where events in one part can impact others, reflecting the global interdependence of societies.
(c) What is Sustainable Development?
Ans: Sustainable development is an approach to growth that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves balancing economic, social, and environmental aspects to ensure long-term well-being and harmony with the planet.
(d) What is Cross-Border Terrorism?
Ans: Cross-border terrorism refers to the use of violence, including acts of terrorism, by non-state actors or groups operating from one country against another. These activities typically involve the violation of national borders and are often aimed at causing political, social, or economic destabilization in the targeted country.


(a) What is Economic Globalization?
Ans: Economic globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of national economies through the flow of goods, services, capital, and information across borders. It involves the integration of national economies into the global economy, facilitated by advancements in communication, transportation, and technology. Economic globalization is characterized by international trade, foreign direct investment, and the emergence of global supply chains, creating a highly interlinked and interdependent economic system. It has both positive and negative effects, fostering economic growth and access to resources for some, while also contributing to challenges such as inequality, environmental degradation, and vulnerability to global economic fluctuations.
(b) What do you understand by Transnational Corporations (TNCs) ?
Ans: Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are large businesses that operate in multiple countries, having subsidiaries, branches, or affiliates beyond their home country. These corporations conduct business and engage in various activities, including production, marketing, and distribution, on a global scale. TNCs play a significant role in economic globalization, contributing to cross-border trade, investment, and the creation of global supply chains. Their operations can impact national economies, local communities, and global economic dynamics. TNCs often possess significant economic and political influence, and their activities raise issues related to corporate responsibility, labor practices, environmental sustainability, and the balance of power between corporations and nation-states.
(c) Write a short note on Anti-Globalization Movement.
Ans: The Anti-Globalization Movement emerged in the late 20th century as a response to the perceived negative impacts of economic globalization. Activists expressed concerns about the power of multinational corporations, inequality, environmental degradation, and the erosion of national sovereignty. The movement gained visibility through protests at international summits, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) meetings. Critics argued that globalization favored the interests of wealthy nations and corporations over social and environmental welfare. While diverse in its goals and strategies, the movement sought to raise awareness about the drawbacks of unregulated globalization and advocated for fair trade, social justice, and sustainable development. Despite critiques, globalization proponents argue that it has led to economic growth, poverty reduction, and increased global cooperation. The Anti-Globalization Movement continues to influence debates on the balance between economic integration and the need for equitable and sustainable development.
(d) What are Realist views on Terrorism?

Ans: Realist views on terrorism are grounded in the principles of realism, a dominant theory in international relations. Realists typically emphasize state-centric perspectives, power politics, and the pursuit of national interests. Regarding terrorism:

  1. State-Centric Focus: Realists often view terrorism through the lens of state interests and power dynamics, emphasizing the role of states as primary actors in international relations.
  2. National Security: Realists highlight the impact of terrorism on national security and argue that states must prioritize their own security interests to maintain stability.
  3. Power Struggles: Terrorism is seen as a tool used by non-state actors to challenge or influence state power. Realists analyze how states respond strategically to terrorist threats to safeguard their interests.
  4. Balance of Power: Realists may assess how terrorist activities can shift the balance of power among states, impacting alliances, conflicts, and geopolitical dynamics.
  5. State Response: Realists often advocate for strong state responses to terrorism, including military action if necessary, to protect national interests and maintain a balance of power.
  6. Anarchy and Security Dilemma: Realists argue that the anarchic nature of the international system and the security dilemma contribute to the emergence of terrorism as states seek to protect themselves against potential threats.




(a) How does Globalization impact on political sovereignty? Do you think that in the era of Globalization, the concept of Nation-State is on decline? Give reasons.

Ans: Globalization significantly impacts political sovereignty by challenging traditional notions of state control and autonomy. The concept of the nation-state, while not necessarily in decline, undergoes transformations in the era of globalization.

Impact on Political Sovereignty:

  1. Supranational Organizations: States increasingly participate in supranational organizations like the United Nations, the European Union, and the World Trade Organization, limiting absolute sovereignty as decisions involve cooperation and compromise.
  2. Global Governance: Global challenges such as climate change, terrorism, and economic interdependence require collaborative solutions, reducing the absolute autonomy of states in managing these issues.
  3. International Agreements: Trade agreements, environmental pacts, and human rights treaties bind states to international norms, constraining their ability to act unilaterally.
  4. Technological Advances: The digital era allows for the rapid flow of information, influencing public opinion and policy decisions, sometimes circumventing traditional state controls.

Concept of Nation-State:

  1. Economic Interdependence: Globalization fosters economic interdependence, leading to the integration of national economies. This challenges the idea that the nation-state is the sole economic actor.
  2. Transnationalism: Transnational corporations, non-governmental organizations, and global movements operate across borders, diminishing the state’s exclusive role in shaping global affairs.
  3. Shift in Power Dynamics: While the nation-state remains a crucial actor, power dynamics shift as non-state actors gain influence, altering the traditional hierarchy of global politics.
  4. Regional Integration: Regional blocs, like the European Union, showcase a move towards shared sovereignty, challenging the notion of absolute national autonomy.

(b) Discuss the major Ecological issues in Global Politics with special reference to Global –Commons debate.

Ans: Ecological issues in global politics are central to discussions on environmental sustainability, conservation, and the utilization of global commons—areas not under the jurisdiction of any single state. The Global Commons debate revolves around the management and preservation of shared resources critical to the planet. Key ecological issues include:

  1. Climate Change:

    Climate change is a global challenge with farreaching implications for ecosystems and societies.

    The debate centers on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to climate impacts, and ensuring global cooperation.

  1. Biodiversity Loss:

    The loss of biodiversity, driven by habitat destruction and climate change, threatens ecosystems and species globally.

    The Global Commons debate emphasizes the need for conservation efforts and sustainable resource management.

  1. Deforestation:

    Deforestation contributes to habitat loss, carbon emissions, and disrupts ecosystems.

    The Global Commons perspective emphasizes the importance of preserving global forests as shared resources.

  1. Ocean Degradation:

    Issues like overfishing, plastic pollution, and ocean acidification affect marine ecosystems.

    The Global Commons debate involves efforts to establish international agreements for sustainable ocean management.

  1. Water Scarcity:

    Water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change and mismanagement, is a global concern.

    The Global Commons perspective calls for responsible water use and international collaboration in water management.

  1. Pollution:

    Air, water, and soil pollution pose significant environmental and health risks.

    Global Commons discussions focus on regulating pollutants and enforcing international agreements.

  1. Resource Depletion:

    Unsustainable exploitation of resources, such as minerals and fossil fuels, raises concerns about depletion and environmental degradation.

    The Global Commons debate seeks equitable and sustainable resource use on a global scale.



Your gateway to government jobs! Sarkari Dhanda keeps you informed on the latest opportunities, exams, and career insights for a successful public sector career.


About Us


Contact Us

Terms & Conditions

Privacy Policy


Copyright Notice

Social Media Links

Help Center



New Releases

Best Sellers




Privacy Policy

Mailing List

© 2023 Sarkaridhanda All Rights Reserved