i) Write two examples of man-made disasters.
Ans: Nuclear meltdown, industrial spills.
ii) For the management of disaster, the Odisha Government has constituted______
Ans: Disaster Response Force.
iii) What is population density?
Ans: People per area.
iv) What is the birth rate?
Ans: Number of births.
v) In which year the Environmental Protection Act was enacted?
Ans: 1986
vi) In which year Wildlife Protection Act was enacted?
Ans: 1972
vii) What is the full form of SPCB?
Ans: State Pollution Control Board.
viii) Who has first introduced the term ecosystem?
Ans: Arthur Tansley.
ix) What is a food chain?
Ans: Sequential feeding relationships.
x) Write two examples of natural disasters.
Ans: Earthquake, hurricane.


i) What is the biogeochemical cycle with two examples?
Ans: The biogeochemical cycle is the movement of elements through living organisms and the environment. Examples include the carbon cycle, involving processes like photosynthesis and respiration, and the nitrogen cycle, where nitrogen is converted into different forms by various biological and chemical processes, sustaining life. These cycles play crucial roles in maintaining ecological balance and supporting life on Earth.
ii) What is ecological succession?
Ans: Ecological succession is the gradual, predictable process of change in the structure and composition of an ecological community over time. It occurs in stages, starting with pioneer species and progressing towards a stable climax community. Examples include primary succession on bare rock and secondary succession after disturbances like fires. Succession is driven by interactions between organisms and their environment, leading to a dynamic balance in ecosystems.
iii) What is life expectancy?
Ans: Life expectancy is the average number of years a person can expect to live, based on statistical data. It provides an estimate of the overall health and mortality of a population. Factors such as healthcare, nutrition, and living conditions influence life expectancy. Improvements in these factors generally lead to increased life expectancy, while adverse conditions may reduce it. Life expectancy is a key indicator of a population’s well-being and the effectiveness of healthcare systems.
iv) Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources.

Ans: Renewable resources can be replenished naturally over time, such as sunlight and wind energy. Nonrenewable resources, like fossil fuels and minerals, are finite and cannot be replaced on a human timescale. While renewable resources are sustainable, nonrenewable resources are exhaustible, emphasizing the importance of responsible usage and the development of alternative, sustainable sources to meet long-term needs. Balancing the utilization of both types is crucial for environmental conservation and energy security.
v) What is Biodiversity?
Ans: Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, refers to the variety of life on Earth at all levels, including the variety of species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity within species. It encompasses the multitude of living organisms, their interrelationships, and the ecological complexes they form. Biodiversity is crucial for ecosystem stability, resilience, and the provision of ecosystem services. It is threatened by human activities, emphasizing the need for conservation efforts to sustain the health and balance of the planet’s ecosystems.
vi) Distinguish between pollution and pollutants.

Pollution is the presence or introduction into the environment of contaminants or substances that cause harm or discomfort to living organisms. It is the overall negative impact on the environment due to human activities.

Pollutants, on the other hand, are the specific substances or agents that cause pollution. These can include pollutants like chemicals, particulate matter, or biological agents that, when released into the environment, can lead to adverse effects on ecosystems, human health, or the overall environment.

vii)What is environmental movement?
Ans: The environmental movement is a collective effort advocating for environmental protection. It involves various activities, including awareness campaigns and policy advocacy, addressing concerns like pollution and climate change. Through conservation and sustainable development initiatives, it aims to ensure ecological sustainability and a balanced relationship between humans and nature. This movement plays a vital role in shaping policies for a more sustainable future, emphasizing responsible resource use.
viii) Write two roles of the Central Pollution Control Board.

1. Regulation and Monitoring: The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) regulates and monitors pollution levels across the country. It establishes and enforces standards for air and water quality, ensuring compliance with environmental regulations by industries and other entities.

2. Environmental Planning and Coordination:The CPCB plays a key role in environmental planning and coordination by collaborating with state pollution control boards. It develops strategies for pollution control, promotes research and development, and facilitates the exchange of information to address environmental challenges effectively.

ix) What is an ecological pyramid?

An ecological pyramid is a graphical representation that illustrates the hierarchical structure of an ecosystem, depicting the trophic levels and the flow of energy or biomass through them. It typically consists of three main types:

1. Pyramid of Energy: Represents the amount of energy transferred at each trophic level, with energy decreasing as it moves up from producers to consumers.

2. Pyramid of Biomass: Illustrates the total biomass (organic matter) at each trophic level, showing the decrease in biomass as one moves up the food chain.

3. Pyramid of Numbers: Displays the number of organisms at each trophic level, demonstrating the numerical relationships within an ecosystem.

These pyramids provide insights into the structure and dynamics of ecosystems.

x) What is hard water?
Ans: Hard water is water that has a high mineral content, primarily consisting of calcium and magnesium ions. These minerals are dissolved in the water as it passes through rocks and soil, picking up calcium and magnesium salts. The presence of these minerals can lead to several issues, such as difficulty in forming lather with soap, scaling in pipes and appliances, and potential interference with certain industrial processes. Water hardness is often expressed in terms of calcium carbonate equivalents (ppm or mg/L).


(i) What is an ecosystem?

Ans: An ecosystem is a complex, interconnected community of living organisms (biotic) and their physical environment (abiotic) where they interact and exchange energy. It encompasses various species, their habitats, and the ecological processes that sustain life. Ecosystems range from small, like a pond, to large, like a forest or ocean. Each component, from plants and animals to soil, air, and water, plays a role in maintaining balance. Energy flows through the ecosystem, and elements are cycled, creating dynamic and interdependent relationships. Human activities can impact ecosystems, emphasizing the importance of sustainable practices for the well-being of both the environment and its inhabitants.
(ii) What is the sex ratio? vulnerability? What are the different types of vulnerability?


Sex Ratio:
Sex ratio refers to the number of males per 100 females in a population. It is a demographic indicator that helps assess gender imbalances within a given area or society. A sex ratio of 100 typically indicates a balanced population, while deviations may suggest gender disparities due to factors like cultural preferences or sex-selective practices.

Vulnerability denotes the susceptibility of individuals, communities, or systems to adverse impacts from external stresses. It encompasses various dimensions, including economic, social, environmental, and health vulnerabilities. Vulnerability assessment involves identifying factors that increase the risk of harm or limit adaptive capacity, aiding in the development of strategies to enhance resilience.

Types of Vulnerability:
1. Social Vulnerability: Relates to societal factors affecting individuals or groups.
2. Economic Vulnerability: Involves susceptibility to economic shocks or poverty.
3. Environmental Vulnerability: Refers to sensitivity to environmental changes or disasters.
4. Health Vulnerability: Concerns risks related to health and healthcare access.
5. Climate Vulnerability: Relates to the impact of climate change on communities.
6. Food Security Vulnerability: Involves risks associated with access to and availability of food.

(iii) What is the role of the biotic and abiotic factors in the ecosystem?

Ans: Biotic Factors in Ecosystems: Biotic factors encompass all living organisms within an ecosystem. They play crucial roles in ecosystem dynamics through interactions such as predation, competition, and mutualism. Producers, like plants, capture energy from the sun and form the basis of food chains. Consumers, including herbivores and carnivores, contribute to energy transfer. Decomposers break down organic matter, recycling nutrients. Biotic factors influence population sizes, biodiversity, and the overall health of the ecosystem.

Abiotic Factors in Ecosystems: Abiotic factors are non-living components that influence the environment. These include physical factors like temperature, sunlight, soil composition, water availability, and climatic conditions. Abiotic factors directly impact the distribution and behavior of living organisms. For instance, temperature affects metabolic rates, and sunlight availability influences photosynthesis. Understanding abiotic factors is crucial for assessing ecosystem health, as they shape the structure and functioning of ecological communities. The interplay between biotic and abiotic factors determines the resilience and sustainability of an ecosystem.

(iv) Write down the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.

Ans: Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs):

  1. Healthy Lifestyle Promotion:

   Encourage individuals to adopt healthy habits such as regular physical activity, balanced diet, limited alcohol consumption, and avoidance of tobacco products.

  1. Public Awareness Campaigns:

   Implement educational programs to raise awareness about NCD risk factors, symptoms, and the importance of early detection and treatment.

  1. Screening and Early Detection:

   Establish regular health screenings for common NCDs like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain cancers to facilitate early diagnosis and intervention.

  1. Policy and Legislation:

   Implement and enforce policies and regulations that promote health, such as restrictions on tobacco advertising, promotion of healthy food options, and workplace wellness programs.

  1. Healthcare Infrastructure Enhancement:

   Strengthen healthcare systems to ensure access to quality medical care, medications, and preventive services for managing NCDs.

  1. Research and Surveillance:

   Invest in research to better understand NCDs, their risk factors, and effective interventions. Establish robust surveillance systems to monitor NCD trends and inform public health strategies.

  1. Community Engagement:

   Involve communities in health promotion initiatives, fostering a sense of responsibility and collective action in preventing and managing NCDs.

  1. International Collaboration:

   Collaborate with international organizations to share knowledge, resources, and best practices for NCD prevention and control.

(v) What do you mean by the Greenhouse Effect?

Ans: The greenhouse effect refers to the natural process by which certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere trap and retain heat from the sun, preventing it from escaping back into space. These gases, known as greenhouse gases (GHGs), include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), water vapor, and others. When solar radiation reaches the Earth’s surface, it is absorbed and re-radiated as infrared radiation. Greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit some of this infrared radiation, trapping heat in the atmosphere and maintaining a relatively warm and habitable temperature on Earth. However, human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, have significantly increased the concentration of greenhouse gases, enhancing the natural greenhouse effect. This anthropogenic enhancement contributes to global warming and climate change, leading to various environmental impacts.

(vi) Write notes on noise pollution and water pollution.


Noise Pollution:

Definition: Noise pollution refers to the presence of excessive, disruptive, or unpleasant sound that interferes with normal activities, causing harm to human health and the environment.

1. Industrial activities
2. Traffic noise
3. Construction sites
4. Social events and entertainment
5. Household appliances

1. Hearing impairment
2. Sleep disturbances
3. Stress and anxiety
4. Communication interference
5. Disturbance to wildlife

Prevention and Control:
1. Implement noise regulations and zoning policies.
2. Use noise barriers and soundproofing measures.
3. Promote public awareness about noise reduction.
4. Limit use of loud equipment during certain hours.

Water Pollution:

*Definition:* Water pollution involves the introduction of harmful substances into water bodies, making them unsafe for human use and damaging aquatic ecosystems.

1. Industrial discharges
2. Agricultural runoff
3. Municipal sewage
4. Oil spills
5. Improper disposal of waste

1. Contamination of drinking water
2. Decline in aquatic biodiversity
3. Harm to human health (waterborne diseases)
4. Disruption of ecosystems
5. Economic impact on fisheries and tourism

Prevention and Control:
1. Implement and enforce water quality standards.
2. Improve wastewater treatment facilities.
3. Promote sustainable agricultural practices.
4. Educate the public on responsible waste disposal.
5. Monitor and regulate industrial discharges.

(vii) What do you mean by disaster management?

Ans: Disaster management refers to the systematic process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and implementing measures to prepare for, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the impact of disasters. Disasters can be natural, such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes, or human-made, like industrial accidents or conflicts. The goal of disaster management is to minimize the loss of life, property damage, and the social and economic disruptions caused by disasters.

Key components of disaster management include:

1. Preparedness: Developing plans, training, and resources to respond effectively before a disaster occurs.

2. Response: Immediate actions taken during and after a disaster to save lives, provide emergency services, and meet basic needs.

3. Recovery: Rebuilding and restoring affected areas and communities to a stable and functional state.

4. Mitigation: Implementing measures to reduce the impact and recurrence of disasters through land-use planning, infrastructure development, and risk reduction strategies.

(viii) Describe the different methods for control of population growth.


Population Control Methods:

1. Family Planning:
– Promoting contraception and family planning methods to enable individuals to choose the number and spacing of their children.
– Providing access to contraceptives, education, and reproductive healthcare services.

2. Education and Empowerment:
– Increasing educational opportunities, particularly for women, as higher education tends to correlate with lower fertility rates.
– Empowering women through access to information, employment, and decision-making roles.

3. Healthcare Services:
– Improving healthcare infrastructure to reduce infant mortality rates, as lower child mortality often correlates with lower birth rates.
– Providing maternal and child healthcare services to ensure the well-being of mothers and children.

4. Economic Incentives and Support:
– Implementing policies that provide economic incentives for smaller families, such as tax benefits or subsidies.
– Creating social support systems to address economic concerns associated with smaller families.

5. Legal Measures:
– Implementing policies, such as family size restrictions, to regulate population growth.
– Encouraging responsible parenting through legal frameworks.

6. Awareness and Advocacy:
– Conducting awareness campaigns on the benefits of smaller families and responsible family planning.
– Advocating for population control through media, community engagement, and educational programs.

7. Community Involvement:
– Engaging communities in discussions and decision-making regarding population issues.
– Encouraging community-based initiatives that promote responsible family planning.

(ix) What is the difference between communicable and non-communicable Diseases.


Communicable Diseases:

1. Definition:
– Communicable diseases, also known as infectious or contagious diseases, are illnesses caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.
– These diseases can spread from person to person, either directly (through contact with bodily fluids) or indirectly (through contaminated objects or the environment).

2. Transmission:
– Spread occurs through various means, including airborne droplets, contact with infected individuals, contaminated food or water, and vector-borne transmission (via insects like mosquitoes).

3. Examples:
– Influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and COVID-19 are examples of communicable diseases.

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs):

1. Definition:
– Non-communicable diseases are health conditions that are not caused by infectious agents and cannot be transmitted from person to person.
– These diseases often develop over an extended period and are influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors.

2. Causes:
– Factors such as genetics, diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption contribute to the development of non-communicable diseases.

3. Examples:
– Common non-communicable diseases include cardiovascular diseases (heart disease and stroke), diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and mental health disorders.

(x) What is a pandemic? Give an example.

 Ans: A pandemic is an outbreak of a disease that occurs on a global scale, affecting a large number of people across multiple countries or continents. Unlike localized epidemics, a pandemic involves the widespread and sustained transmission of a disease on an international level.

Example: COVID-19 Pandemic 
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, emerged in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. It rapidly spread globally, leading to widespread illness, significant morbidity and mortality, and disruptions to societies and economies worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a pandemic on March 11, 2020, acknowledging its unprecedented impact and the need for coordinated international efforts to control its spread and mitigate its effects.


i) Explain with examples the role of voluntary organizations and the Society in
general in disaster management.

Ans: Role of Voluntary Organizations in Disaster Management:

  1. Emergency Response and Relief:

   Voluntary organizations are often at the forefront of emergency response and relief efforts during disasters. They swiftly mobilize resources, personnel, and aid to provide immediate assistance to affected communities. For instance, organizations like the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) play a crucial role in delivering emergency relief such as food, shelter, and medical assistance to disaster-stricken areas. They coordinate with local authorities and other agencies to ensure a timely and effective response.

  1. Community Support and Rehabilitation:

   Beyond immediate relief, voluntary organizations actively engage in community support and rehabilitation. They contribute to rebuilding efforts, focusing on restoring infrastructure, homes, and essential services. Habitat for Humanity is an example, as it works on long-term rehabilitation by constructing homes for families affected by disasters. This sustained support helps communities recover and become more resilient to future disasters.

  1. Public Awareness and Education:

   Voluntary organizations contribute significantly to disaster preparedness by raising public awareness and providing education on disaster risk reduction. For instance, organizations like the National Disaster Search Dog Foundation not only deploy search and rescue teams during disasters but also educate communities on disaster preparedness and safety measures. These efforts empower individuals to be proactive in mitigating risks and responding effectively during emergencies.

Role of Society in General in Disaster Management:

  1. Community Resilience:

   Society at large plays a crucial role in disaster management through the development of community resilience. Communities that actively engage in disaster preparedness, organize drills, and foster a culture of mutual support are better equipped to handle emergencies. An example is the “Community Emergency Response Teams” (CERTs), where community members are trained to assist emergency services and neighbors during crises.

  1. Citizen Engagement and Volunteerism:

   The general population contributes significantly through citizen engagement and volunteerism. During disasters, volunteers often emerge from within the community to provide assistance. For instance, after natural disasters like hurricanes or earthquakes, local residents often volunteer their time and resources to help with rescue operations, distribute aid, and support the affected population.

  1. Civil Society Advocacy:

   Civil society organizations and advocacy groups play a vital role in influencing policies related to disaster management. By advocating for better infrastructure, early warning systems, and sustainable practices, they contribute to creating a more resilient society. For instance, organizations like Greenpeace may advocate for policies that address climate change to mitigate the impact of climate-related disasters.

ii) What are the major sources of water pollution? How does water Pollution affect human?

Ans: Major Sources of Water Pollution:

  1. Industrial Discharges:

   Industries release various pollutants into water bodies, including chemicals, heavy metals, and toxins. Effluents from manufacturing processes contribute to water pollution.

  1. Agricultural Runoff:

    Agricultural activities introduce pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides into water through runoff. These chemicals can lead to nutrient imbalances and harm aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Municipal Sewage:

   Improperly treated or untreated sewage from urban areas can contain pathogens, nutrients, and contaminants, impacting water quality and posing health risks.

  1. Oil Spills:

    Accidental or deliberate oil spills from shipping, transportation, or industrial activities contaminate water, harming aquatic life and ecosystems.

  1. Plastic Pollution:

    Improper disposal of plastic waste results in plastic pollution in water bodies. Microplastics, tiny particles from degraded plastics, pose risks to aquatic organisms and ecosystems.

  1. Mining Activities:

    Mining operations release pollutants such as heavy metals and sediments into water bodies, affecting water quality and aquatic habitats.

  1. Atmospheric Deposition:

   -Airborne pollutants, such as mercury and industrial emissions, can settle into water bodies through precipitation, contributing to water pollution.

Effects of Water Pollution on Humans:

  1. Contaminated Drinking Water:

   Water pollution can contaminate drinking water sources, leading to the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and gastrointestinal illnesses.

  1. Health Impacts:

   -Exposure to polluted water can cause a range of health problems, including skin infections, respiratory issues, and long-term health conditions due to the ingestion of harmful contaminants.

  1. Food Chain Contamination:

    Pollutants in water can accumulate in aquatic organisms. When humans consume contaminated fish or seafood, they may be exposed to harmful substances such as mercury or persistent organic pollutants.

  1. Economic Impact:

    Water pollution can harm industries that rely on clean water, such as fisheries and tourism. Contaminated water bodies may lead to economic losses and job displacement.

  1. Reduced Access to Clean Water:

   Water pollution can compromise the availability of clean and safe water for daily use, leading to water scarcity issues and affecting overall quality of life.

  1. Ecological Disruption:

   Water pollution disrupts aquatic ecosystems, leading to the decline of fish populations, loss of biodiversity, and altered ecosystem functions. This, in turn, affects the livelihoods of communities dependent on these ecosystems.

  1. Long-Term Environmental Impact:

   Persistent pollutants can have long-term environmental consequences, affecting ecosystems and natural habitats. The accumulation of pollutants over time may lead to irreversible damage to aquatic environments.

iii) Give a brief on the Odisha Supper Cyclone, 1999.
Ans: The Odisha Super Cyclone, also known as Cyclone 05B, struck the eastern coast of India in October 1999. It was one of the most powerful and devastating tropical cyclones to hit the Indian subcontinent in recent history. Here’s a brief overview:


 Date: October 2529, 1999.

 Landfall: The cyclone made landfall near Paradip in Odisha on the evening of October 29, 1999.

Key Characteristics:

  1. Intensity: The cyclone reached Category 5 status, with sustained winds exceeding 155 miles per hour (250 km/h) and gusts reaching even higher speeds.
  2. Storm Surge: The storm surge accompanying the cyclone was particularly destructive, reaching an estimated 20 feet (6 meters) in some areas. The surge, combined with high tides, led to widespread flooding along the coast.
  3. Impact on Odisha:

    Casualties: The cyclone caused significant loss of life, with estimates ranging from 10,000 to 15,000 fatalities. Many coastal villages were severely affected, and infrastructure was devastated.

    Displacement: Hundreds of thousands of people were displaced from their homes due to the cyclone and subsequent flooding.

    Economic Impact: The cyclone caused extensive damage to agriculture, fisheries, and infrastructure, leading to a substantial economic impact on the region.

  1. Response and Relief:

    The Odisha Super Cyclone prompted a massive humanitarian response. The Indian government, along with national and international aid agencies, launched relief efforts to provide food, shelter, and medical assistance to the affected population.

    The disaster management and response strategies were later praised for their effectiveness in mitigating casualties during subsequent cyclones in the region.

  1. Aftermath:

    The cyclone highlighted the vulnerability of coastal regions to tropical cyclones and underscored the need for improved disaster preparedness and early warning systems.

    The devastation led to increased efforts in disaster risk reduction, including the construction of cyclone shelters, improved forecasting, and communitybased disaster preparedness initiatives in the region.

The Odisha Super Cyclone of 1999 remains a significant event in the history of natural disasters in India. It prompted important changes in disaster management strategies and contributed to advancements in early warning systems to mitigate the impact of future cyclones in the region.

iv)What is ecological pyramid? Describe the various ecological pyramids found in an ecosystem.


Ecological Pyramid:

An ecological pyramid is a graphical representation of the trophic structure and energy flow within an ecosystem. It illustrates the hierarchical organization of different trophic levels, showing the transfer of energy or biomass from one level to another. There are three main types of ecological pyramids: pyramid of energy, pyramid of biomass, and pyramid of numbers.

  1. Pyramid of Energy:

    Definition: Represents the flow of energy through different trophic levels in an ecosystem.


      Energy decreases with each trophic level due to the second law of thermodynamics.

      Typically, only about 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.

    Example: In a grassland ecosystem, the producers (plants) at the base of the pyramid receive sunlight energy, and as energy moves up to herbivores (primary consumers) and then to carnivores (secondary and tertiary consumers), the available energy decreases.

  1. Pyramid of Biomass:

    Definition: Represents the total biomass (organic matter) of organisms at each trophic level.


      Biomass decreases with each trophic level because energy is lost as metabolic heat.

      Typically, the biomass of producers is higher than that of consumers.

    Example: In a forest ecosystem, the biomass pyramid would show a large biomass of trees (producers) at the base, followed by a smaller biomass of herbivores (primary consumers) and an even smaller biomass of carnivores (secondary and tertiary consumers).

  1. Pyramid of Numbers:

    Definition: Represents the number of individuals at each trophic level in an ecosystem.


      The pyramid shape can vary, with an upright, inverted, or even shape depending on the ecosystem.

      The number of individuals generally decreases with each trophic level.

    Example: In a grassland ecosystem, there may be a large number of grasses (producers) at the base, supporting a smaller number of herbivores (primary consumers), and an even smaller number of carnivores (secondary and tertiary consumers).

Each type of ecological pyramid provides valuable insights into the structure and functioning of ecosystems. They help ecologists understand the relationships between different trophic levels, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the overall dynamics of ecosystems.


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