a. POSDCORB view of administration was developed by ———.Ans:Luther Gulick.
b. Profit motive is a feature of ———administration.Ans:Private.
c. ——— is regarded as the modern father of Public Administration.Ans:Woodrow Wilson.
d. ——— proposed bureaucratic theory in administration.Ans:Max Weber.
e. ——— is the chief exponent of Scientific Theory of Management.Ans:Frederick Taylor.
f. The illumination experiments were a part of ——— studies under Elton Mayo.Ans:Hawthorne.
g. Administration is divided into two parts what are they?Ans:Public and Private.
h. The word administer is derived from which Latin word?Ans:“Administrare.”
i. There are two views regarding the Nature of Public Administration what are they?Ans:Managerial and Political.
j. When was the ‘Essay on the study of Administration’ published?Ans:1887



a. Define the meaning of Private Administration.
Ans:Private administration refers to the management and coordination of activities within privately owned organizations or businesses, aiming to achieve their specific objectives and maximize profits. Unlike public administration, private administration operates in a competitive market environment and is driven by the profit motive.
b. What is Integral view of Public Administration?
Ans:The integral view of public administration emphasizes the interconnectedness of various administrative functions and considers the comprehensive and holistic nature of public administration, incorporating both managerial and political aspects in its analysis. It seeks to understand the interplay between administration and politics in the governance of public entities.
c. What is the meaning of Bureaucracy?
Ans:Bureaucracy refers to a hierarchical organizational structure characterized by clearly defined roles, rules, and procedures to efficiently manage and coordinate tasks within a formal system. It often involves a division of labor, a chain of command, and standard operating procedures to ensure consistency and effectiveness in administrative operations.
d. What is Legal-Rational Authority?
Ans:Legal-rational authority, according to Max Weber’s sociological theory, is a form of authority based on a system of rules and laws. It derives legitimacy from established rules and regulations, where individuals in authority are expected to follow and apply these rules in a rational and impersonal manner.
e. What is meant by ‘Unity of Command’?
Ans:Unity of command is a principle in organizational management that states each employee should receive instructions and be accountable to only one supervisor or higher authority. This principle aims to avoid confusion, promote clear lines of communication, and ensure that employees have a single point of authority for their work assignments.
f. What is Hawthorne Study?
Ans:The Hawthorne Studies were a series of experiments conducted at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago during the 1920s and 1930s. The studies, initially focused on the relationship between lighting conditions and worker productivity, expanded to explore the impact of social and psychological factors on employee performance and job satisfaction, leading to insights into the importance of human factors in the workplace.
g. What do you mean by ‘Sala Model’?
Ans:I’m sorry, but I couldn’t find information on a “Sala Model” related to a specific concept or topic. If you have additional context or details, I’d be happy to try to help with any information I may have.
h. What is the aim of Historical Approach to Public Administration?
Ans:The aim of the Historical Approach to Public Administration is to study the development and evolution of administrative practices over time, examining historical contexts, events, and trends to understand the roots and transformations of public administration. This approach seeks insights into how administrative systems have evolved, identifying patterns and lessons from the past to inform contemporary administrative practices and address present challenges.
i. What is the Managerial view of Administration?
Ans:The Managerial view of administration, also known as the management or scientific management approach, emphasizes the application of principles of efficiency, organization, and productivity in the administration of organizations. Developed by theorists like Frederick Taylor, this perspective focuses on rationalizing work processes, standardizing procedures, and improving overall efficiency to enhance organizational performance.
j. What is the principle of Span of Control?
Ans:The principle of Span of Control refers to the number of subordinates or employees that a supervisor or manager can effectively and efficiently oversee and manage. It involves determining an optimal balance between a manageable number of direct reports and the supervisor’s ability to provide adequate supervision and support to ensure effective performance and communication within an organization.



a. Difference between Public Administration and Private Administration?
Ans:Public administration involves managing government entities and delivering public services, emphasizing accountability and serving the public interest. Private administration pertains to managing businesses or non-governmental organizations, prioritizing profitability and responding to market demands. While both involve administrative principles, their goals, structures, and contexts differ, with public administration guided by public policy and private administration driven by market dynamics and profit motives.
b. What is the significance of Public Administration?
Ans:Public administration is crucial for effective governance and the delivery of public services. It ensures the implementation of laws, policies, and programs, promoting accountability and transparency in the public sector. Public administration plays a key role in addressing societal needs, managing resources, and fostering public trust. Its significance lies in creating efficient, equitable, and responsive systems that contribute to the well-being and development of societies, ultimately shaping the quality of public life.
c. What is Politics and Administration Dichotomy?
Ans:The Politics and Administration Dichotomy suggests a separation between political decision-making and administrative implementation in government. Developed by Woodrow Wilson, it argues that politics (policy formulation) should be distinct from administration (policy execution) to enhance efficiency and expertise. However, this concept has been criticized, as the realms are interconnected, and administrators often engage in policymaking. The debate continues over how to balance political direction and administrative autonomy in the functioning of public administration.
d. What is Hierarchy in Administration?
Ans:Hierarchy in administration refers to the structured and layered arrangement of authority and responsibility within an organization. It involves levels of management or supervision, with each level having distinct roles and responsibilities. The hierarchical structure establishes a chain of command, allowing for clear lines of communication, decision-making, and accountability. This organizational design aims to streamline operations, enhance efficiency, and facilitate effective coordination within the administrative framework.
e. What is Tylor’s Approach of Management?
Ans:There doesn’t seem to be a widely recognized management approach associated with someone named “Tylor” in the context of classical management theories or modern management literature. It’s possible there might be a confusion or misspelling. If you have additional details or clarification, I’d be happy to help with any information I may have.
f. What is the theory of departmentalisation according to Luther Gulick?
Ans:Luther Gulick, a management theorist, introduced the concept of “POSDCORB,” which stands for Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting. While Gulick’s theory primarily focuses on administrative functions, he also emphasized the importance of departmentalization within organizations. Departmentalization involves organizing tasks and activities based on functional areas or specific purposes, enhancing efficiency and coordination. Gulick’s ideas, including departmentalization, contribute to the broader understanding of organizational structure and management practices.
g. What is Delegation of Powers?
Ans:Delegation of powers refers to the process of assigning authority and responsibility from a superior or manager to subordinates within an organization. It involves entrusting specific tasks, decision-making, and responsibilities to individuals or teams, empowering them to act on behalf of the delegator. Delegation is a fundamental aspect of effective management, promoting efficiency, teamwork, and organizational flexibility, as well as fostering skill development and leadership within the workforce.
h. Explain the Theory of Bureaucracy.
Ans:The Theory of Bureaucracy, primarily developed by Max Weber, outlines the characteristics of an ideal bureaucratic organization. It features a hierarchical structure with clear levels of authority, a division of labor, written rules and procedures, impersonal relationships, and merit-based selection. Bureaucracy aims to ensure efficiency, predictability, and rational decision-making. While criticized for potential rigidity, Weber’s theory has significantly influenced the understanding and design of organizational structures in both public and private sectors.
i. What is the Relevance of the Administrative Management Approach?
Ans:The Administrative Management Approach, associated with theorists like Henri Fayol, emphasizes principles of management applicable across various organizations. Its relevance lies in providing a framework for managing organizational functions, including planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. Fayol’s principles, such as unity of command and scalar chain, contribute to effective organizational structure. Despite critiques, the Administrative Management Approach offers foundational concepts guiding contemporary management practices, making it relevant for understanding and improving organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
j. Write a short note on Rational decision-making approach?
Ans:The Rational Decision-Making Approach is a systematic process where individuals or organizations make decisions by gathering relevant information, analyzing options, and selecting the most rational choice based on a thorough assessment of available data. This approach assumes individuals are rational actors seeking to maximize utility or achieve specific objectives. It involves defining the problem, identifying alternatives, evaluating consequences, and choosing the option that best aligns with goals. While ideal in theory, practical limitations like bounded rationality may impact decision-makers’ ability to process all information perfectly.



a. Define Public Administration and Discuss its scope.
Ans: Public Administration Definition:

Public Administration refers to the implementation of government policy and the management of public programs. It involves activities such as planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling public resources to achieve public goals efficiently and effectively.

Scope of Public Administration:

The scope of Public Administration is broad, encompassing various dimensions:

  1. Government Functions:Public Administration involves the execution of government functions, including policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. It ensures that laws and policies are translated into tangible actions and services for the public.
  2. Public Services Management:It includes the management of public services such as education, healthcare, infrastructure, and social welfare. Public administrators work to optimize service delivery, allocate resources, and address public needs.
  3. Bureaucratic Organizations:Public Administration operates within bureaucratic structures. Bureaucracies provide stability, consistency, and a systematic approach to managing public affairs. This involves hierarchical structures, specialized roles, and adherence to rules and procedures.
  4. Financial Administration:Managing public finances is a crucial aspect. This includes budgeting, revenue collection, expenditure control, and financial planning to ensure responsible use of public funds.
  5. Personnel Management:Public Administration deals with human resources in the public sector. This involves recruitment, training, performance evaluation, and ensuring a competent and motivated workforce.
  6. Policy Analysis and Implementation:Public administrators engage in policy analysis, assessing the impact and feasibility of proposed policies. They are responsible for translating policies into concrete actions and ensuring alignment with public objectives.
  7. Local Governance:Public Administration extends to local governance, where administrators work at the municipal or community level. Local government officials implement policies, manage local services, and address community needs.
  8. International Relations:Public Administration operates in the global context, engaging in international relations and cooperation. This involves diplomacy, negotiations, and participation in international organizations to address global challenges.
  9. Ethics and Accountability:Upholding ethical standards and ensuring accountability are integral to Public Administration. Administrators must act with integrity, transparency, and responsiveness to the needs and concerns of the public.
  10. Policy Research and Development:Public Administration involves research and development activities to inform policy decisions. This includes analyzing societal trends, conducting impact assessments, and proposing innovative solutions to emerging challenges.
  11. Emergency Management:Public administrators are involved in managing crises and emergencies. This includes disaster response, public safety coordination, and ensuring a swift and effective government response during emergencies.
  12. Public Policy Advocacy:Public Administration engages in advocacy for policies that benefit the public. This involves collaboration with stakeholders, addressing public concerns, and facilitating dialogue to shape effective and inclusive policies.

b. Explain Henry Fayol’s theory of Administrative Management.
Ans: Fayol’s Administrative Management Theory:

Henri Fayol, a French mining engineer and management theorist, developed the Administrative Management Theory in the early 20th century. Fayol’s theory focuses on the functions of management and the principles that guide effective administrative practices. He outlined these principles in his influential work, “General and Industrial Management” (1916). Fayol identified five key functions of management, known as the “POSDCORB” framework:

  1. Planning:Planning involves defining goals, establishing strategies, and developing plans to coordinate activities. Fayol emphasized the need for systematic and comprehensive planning to achieve organizational objectives.
  2. Organizing:Organizing involves designing the structure of the organization. This includes arranging resources, tasks, and personnel to ensure the effective implementation of plans. Fayol stressed the importance of a clear organizational structure with defined roles and responsibilities.
  3. Staffing:Staffing involves recruiting, training, and developing a competent workforce. Fayol recognized the significance of having the right people in the right positions and ensuring that employees possess the necessary skills and knowledge.
  4. Directing:Directing involves leading and motivating employees to achieve organizational objectives. Fayol highlighted the need for effective communication, leadership, and supervision to guide employees in their tasks.
  5. Coordinating: Coordinating involves harmonizing and synchronizing activities and efforts across the organization. Fayol emphasized the importance of coordination to ensure unity of action and the efficient use of resources.
  6. Reporting:Reporting involves providing information to management and stakeholders. Fayol stressed the need for accurate and timely reporting to facilitate decision-making and maintain transparency within the organization.
  7. Budgeting:Budgeting involves financial planning and control. Fayol recognized the importance of budgeting to allocate resources efficiently, control costs, and ensure financial stability.

Fayol also introduced fourteen principles of management that are integral to his theory:

  1. Division of Labor:Specialization enhances efficiency and productivity.
  2. Authority and Responsibility:Authority and responsibility should go hand in hand to avoid confusion and maintain accountability.
  3. Discipline:Employees should follow established rules and regulations.
  4. Unity of Command:Each employee should receive instructions from only one supervisor to avoid conflicting directives.
  5. Unity of Direction:Organizational activities should be directed toward common objectives.
  6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest:The interests of individuals should not supersede the interests of the organization.
  7. Remuneration: Employees should receive fair and equitable compensation for their work.
  8. Centralization:The degree of centralization depends on the nature of the organization and its activities.
  9. Scalar Chain:A clear and unbroken chain of command facilitates communication and decision-making.
  10. Order:Orderliness contributes to efficiency and a well-organized workplace.
  11. Equity:Fairness and justice in dealing with employees promote a positive work environment.
  12. Stability of Tenure:Long-term employment enhances organizational performance.
  13. Initiative: Employees’ creative and innovative ideas should be encouraged.
  14. Esprit de Corps:Team spirit and harmony among employees contribute to organizational success.

Fayol’s Administrative Management Theory laid the foundation for modern management principles and practices, influencing subsequent management theories and contributing significantly to the understanding of organizational management.

c. Discuss Elton Mayo’s contribution to Human Relation Theory.
Ans:Elton Mayo’s Contribution to Human Relations Theory:

Elton Mayo, an Australian psychologist and sociologist, is renowned for his significant contributions to the Human Relations Theory, particularly through the Hawthorne Studies conducted at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago from the late 1920s to the early 1930s. Mayo’s work challenged classical management theories and emphasized the importance of social and psychological factors in the workplace. Here are key aspects of Mayo’s contributions:

  1. Hawthorne Studies:Mayo and his colleagues conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant to investigate the relationship between working conditions and productivity. These studies initially focused on lighting conditions but evolved to explore the impact of social and psychological factors on employee behavior and performance.
  2. Social and Psychological Factors:Mayo’s findings revealed that social factors, such as group dynamics, communication, and interpersonal relationships, significantly influenced employee behavior and productivity. He highlighted the importance of considering the human side of work, challenging the mechanistic views of classical management.
  3. The Hawthorne Effect:Mayo observed the “Hawthorne Effect,” where employees’ awareness of being observed and studied positively influenced their behavior and performance. This highlighted the psychological and social aspects of work, suggesting that attention and recognition contribute to increased productivity.
  4. Informal Group Dynamics:Mayo emphasized the existence of informal groups within organizations and their impact on individual behavior. He recognized that employees form social bonds, influencing their attitudes, work habits, and job satisfaction. Understanding these dynamics became crucial for effective management.
  5. Human Element in Organizations:Mayo’s work underscored the significance of considering the human element in organizations. He argued that employees are not merely rational economic beings but individuals with social and emotional needs. Recognizing and addressing these needs, Mayo believed, could lead to improved morale and productivity.
  6. Management’s Role in Motivation:Mayo emphasized the role of management in motivating employees. He advocated for a participative and supportive management style that considers the social and emotional needs of workers. Mayo believed that involving employees in decision-making and creating a positive work environment enhances motivation and productivity.
  7. Teamwork and Collaboration:Mayo’s findings encouraged a shift toward teamwork and collaboration in the workplace. Recognizing the importance of group cohesion, he suggested that organizations foster a sense of belonging and collaboration among employees to enhance overall performance.
  8. Critique of Taylorism:Mayo’s work challenged Frederick Taylor’s scientific management principles, which focused solely on optimizing individual work processes. Mayo argued that social and psychological factors played a crucial role in shaping employee behavior and productivity, contributing to a more holistic understanding of organizational dynamics.

Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Theory laid the foundation for modern organizational behavior and management theories, emphasizing the interconnectedness of social, psychological, and organizational factors. His work significantly influenced management practices, fostering a more human-centric approach to organizational leadership and employee relations.

d. Explain the Scientific Management theory of F.W Tylor.
Ans: It seems there might be a confusion in the name. Frederick Winslow Taylor (often known as F.W. Taylor) is widely associated with the Scientific Management theory. Here’s an explanation of Taylor’s Scientific Management:

Scientific Management Theory by F.W. Taylor:

Frederick Taylor, an American engineer and efficiency expert, developed the Scientific Management theory in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The core principle of Scientific Management is to optimize efficiency and productivity in the workplace through the scientific study of work processes. Key elements of Taylor’s theory include:

  1. Time and Motion Studies:Taylor conducted time and motion studies to analyze and standardize work processes. By breaking down tasks into their smallest components, he aimed to identify the most efficient ways of performing them. This scientific approach sought to eliminate unnecessary movements and improve overall efficiency.
  2. PieceRate System:Taylor introduced the piecerate system, where workers were paid based on the number of units they produced. This incentive system aimed to motivate employees to maximize their output. Taylor believed that financial rewards would lead to increased productivity and efficiency.
  3. Scientific Selection and Training:Taylor emphasized the scientific selection of workers based on their aptitude for specific tasks. He argued that matching the right person with the right job would enhance overall performance. Additionally, Taylor advocated for systematic training to ensure that workers possessed the necessary skills for their assigned tasks.
  4. Standardization of Tools and Equipment:Taylor proposed standardizing tools and equipment to eliminate variations that could hinder efficiency. Standardization aimed to create a consistent and optimized work environment, reducing the likelihood of errors and inefficiencies.
  5. Functional Foremanship:Taylor introduced the concept of functional foremanship, which involved specialized supervisors overseeing specific aspects of the production process. For example, there might be separate supervisors for planning, training, quality control, etc. This division of labor among supervisors aimed to ensure expertise and efficiency in each area.
  6. Scientific Management Principles:Taylor outlined four principles of scientific management:
  •     Develop a science for each element of work.
  •     Scientifically select and train workers.
  •     Provide detailed instructions and supervision.
  •     Divide work and responsibility between management and workers.
  1. Critiques and Limitations:While Scientific Management led to increased efficiency in many industries, it faced criticism for its mechanistic view of workers, treating them as interchangeable parts of a machine. Critics argued that it ignored the social and human aspects of work and led to worker dissatisfaction.


Taylor’s Scientific Management theory significantly influenced industrial practices and laid the groundwork for subsequent management theories. While its principles continue to be applied in certain contexts, it is also recognized for its limitations in addressing the complex and dynamic nature of modern organizations and human motivation.





a. In the year ——— World Bank formulated the concept of ‘good governance’. Ans:1992
b. New Public Administration owes its origin to ——— Conference.Ans:Minnowbrook.
c. Mary Wollstonecraft was a supporter of ——— Feminism.Ans:Early.
d. When did the Human Relations Movement emerged?Ans:1930s.
e. When Elton Mayo and his associates was conducted research at Hawthorne Plan?Ans:1924-1932.
f. What is the main Objective of New Public Administration?Ans:Social equity and justice.
g. Who was the founding father of the Ecological Approach?Ans:Bronfenbrenner.
h. From which word’ Public’ is originated?Ans:Latin (Poplicus).
i. In which year Right to Information Act was passed by the Indian Parliament?Ans:2005

j. When was the 3rd Minnow brook conference held-Ans:2008



a. What is Citizen Charter?
Ans:A Citizen Charter is a document that outlines an organization’s commitment to providing quality public services, including information about services, service standards, and grievance redressal mechanisms, aimed at ensuring transparency and accountability. It serves as a bridge between the government and citizens by specifying the expectations and responsibilities of both parties.
b. What is New Public Management?
Ans:New Public Management is an administrative philosophy that advocates for applying private sector management approaches to the public sector to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness of public services. It emphasizes results-oriented, customer-focused, and performance-driven principles, often involving decentralization, privatization, and market-based reforms in public administration.
c. What do you mean by New Service Approach?
Ans:The New Service Approach in public administration refers to a shift in focus from traditional bureaucratic procedures to a more customer-centric and citizen-oriented delivery of public services. It emphasizes responsiveness, accessibility, and quality of services, aiming to meet the diverse needs and expectations of the public through innovative and user-friendly approaches.
d. Mention the focus area of Liberal Feminism.
Ans:Liberal feminism focuses on achieving gender equality through legal and political reforms, advocating for women’s rights within the existing societal and political structures. It emphasizes equal opportunities, individual rights, and dismantling legal barriers that perpetuate gender discrimination.
e. What is the meaning of Public Policy?
Ans:Public policy refers to the government’s decisions, actions, and programs designed to address societal issues and achieve specific goals. It encompasses a range of measures and strategies implemented to influence and guide various aspects of public life, including social, economic, and political domains.
f. What is the Horizontal division of labour?
Ans:Horizontal division of labor refers to the specialization of individuals or groups within an organization based on specific tasks or functions at the same hierarchical level. It involves the distribution of different responsibilities or functions among peers or units, allowing for more efficient and focused handling of tasks within a particular organizational level.
g. What is Feminist Perspective in Governance?
Ans:The feminist perspective in governance examines how gender influences power dynamics, decision-making processes, and policies within political and administrative structures. It aims to address gender-based inequalities, advocate for women’s rights, and promote inclusivity and fairness in governance by considering the experiences and perspectives of women in shaping policies and institutions.
h. How Public Policy is Evaluated?
Ans:Public policy is evaluated through various methods, including assessing its impact on intended outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction. Techniques such as cost-benefit analysis, performance measurement, and qualitative assessments are commonly used to gauge the effectiveness and efficiency of policies.
i. What is Ideal Type Bureaucracy?
Ans:The ideal type bureaucracy, as conceptualized by sociologist Max Weber, is characterized by features such as a hierarchical structure, division of labor, written rules and procedures, impersonality, and merit-based selection. It serves as an analytical model to understand and evaluate organizational structures, emphasizing efficiency and rationality in administrative processes.
j. How Public Policy is formulated
Ans:Public policy is formulated through a complex process that typically involves problem identification, agenda setting, policy formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation. Policymakers gather information, engage in analysis, consult stakeholders, and make decisions based on political, economic, and social considerations to address specific issues or challenges facing society.



a. Write a short note on Rational Decision-making Approach.
Ans:The rational decision-making approach involves a systematic process where individuals or organizations make choices based on logical reasoning and objective assessment of alternatives. It assumes that decision-makers are rational actors seeking to maximize utility, weighing the pros and cons of each option. This approach relies on complete information, clear preferences, and a commitment to selecting the most efficient and effective solution for achieving goals.
b. Discuss the features of Good Governance.
Ans:Good governance is characterized by transparency, accountability, rule of law, participation, consensus orientation, equity, and inclusiveness. It involves effective and efficient use of resources, responsiveness to the needs of the public, and strategic vision in decision-making. Good governance fosters a climate of trust, promotes ethical behavior, and ensures that institutions and processes serve the best interests of the entire community.
c. Describe the Characteristics of Public Policy?
Ans:Public policy exhibits several characteristics, including specificity in addressing particular issues, authority derived from governmental institutions, a focus on public interest, and the ability to influence behavior. It is often dynamic, responding to changing circumstances, and involves a decision-making process. Public policies aim to achieve desired outcomes and impact various aspects of society, reflecting the values and priorities of the governing body that formulates and implements them.
d. What are the Causes for growth of New Public Administration?
Ans:The growth of New Public Administration (NPA) was driven by factors such as dissatisfaction with traditional public administration, a desire for more responsiveness and accountability, a recognition of the limitations of bureaucratic models, and the need to address social equity and justice. The civil rights movement and societal changes in the 1960s also influenced the emergence of NPA, emphasizing the importance of citizen participation, ethical considerations, and a focus on social issues.
e. Who are the agencies involved in the Public Policy Formulation?

Ans:Public policy formulation involves various agencies, including government departments, legislative bodies, research institutions, advocacy groups, and experts in relevant fields. Policymaking often requires collaboration between these entities to gather information, analyze data, and make informed decisions. The involvement of diverse stakeholders ensures a comprehensive and well-informed approach to addressing societal challenges through the creation of effective and sustainable policies.

f. Write a short note on Right to Information Act in India.
Ans:The Right to Information Act (RTI) in India, enacted in 2005, empowers citizens to seek information from public authorities. It enhances transparency and accountability by allowing individuals to access government records and documents. Citizens can request information on various matters, fostering a culture of openness and reducing corruption. The Act is a crucial tool for promoting democratic principles, enabling citizens to actively participate in governance and hold public officials accountable for their actions.
g. Explain the Features of Prismatic Society?
Ans:The concept of a prismatic society, introduced by Alvin Gouldner, refers to a society characterized by multiple and overlapping centers of power and authority. Features include a diverse range of interest groups, a dynamic power structure, and fluid social roles. In a prismatic society, individuals may belong to various social networks, leading to complex interactions and power relations. This model captures the nuanced and intricate nature of social structures, moving beyond traditional binary perspectives on power and authority.
h. Write a short note on the Problems of Evaluation of Public Policy?
Ans:The evaluation of public policy faces challenges such as defining clear objectives, measuring complex outcomes, accounting for unintended consequences, and dealing with long-term effects. Limited resources, political pressures, and changing circumstances add complexity. Subjectivity in assessing values and diverse stakeholder perspectives can lead to biased evaluations. Additionally, establishing causation and separating policy effects from external factors pose methodological challenges. Despite these issues, rigorous evaluation remains crucial for improving policy effectiveness and accountability in governance.
i. Discuss the features of Radical Feminism.
Ans:Radical feminism is characterized by its emphasis on patriarchy as the root cause of women’s oppression. Features include a focus on societal structures and institutions as perpetuators of gender inequality, a call for radical social and political change, and the belief that the personal is political. Radical feminists often critique traditional gender roles, advocate for the dismantling of patriarchal systems, and promote alternative structures that empower women. They highlight the need for collective action to challenge and transform deeply ingrained power dynamics.
j. What is Human Development Index?
Ans:The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistical measure that assesses a country’s average achievements in three basic dimensions of human development: health (life expectancy at birth), education (mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling), and standard of living (gross national income per capita). The HDI provides a comprehensive overview of a nation’s well-being and is widely used to compare and rank countries based on their development outcomes.



a. What is New Public Management? Describe its features.
Ans:New Public Management (NPM) is an approach to public administration that emerged in the late 20th century, emphasizing managerial and business-like techniques to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public services. Here are the key features of New Public Management:

  1. Decentralization: NPM advocates for decentralizing decision-making authority, giving more autonomy to lower-level units and managers. This is believed to enhance responsiveness and innovation.
  2. Market Orientation: Inspired by private sector practices, NPM introduces market-oriented mechanisms into the public sector. This includes concepts like competition, performance-based contracts, and user choice, with the aim of improving service quality.
  3. Emphasis on Results and Performance Measurement: NPM places a strong emphasis on setting clear objectives, measuring performance, and linking outcomes to rewards or sanctions. Performance indicators and benchmarks are used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of public agencies.
  4. Customer Focus: NPM emphasizes customer satisfaction and responsiveness to citizens’ needs. Public agencies are encouraged to adopt a customer-oriented approach to service delivery, with a focus on meeting the expectations of service users.
  5. Entrepreneurial Spirit: NPM encourages a more entrepreneurial and business-like mindset within the public sector. This includes seeking innovative solutions, embracing risk-taking, and fostering a culture of continuous improvement.
  6. Flexibility and Adaptability: NPM recognizes the need for public organizations to be flexible and adaptable to changing circumstances. This involves streamlining bureaucratic processes and structures to enhance agility in responding to dynamic challenges.
  7. Contracting Out and Privatization: NPM promotes the idea of contracting out certain public services to private providers or introducing elements of competition. Privatization is considered a means of introducing efficiency and cost-effectiveness into service delivery.
  8. Performance-Based Pay: In an effort to motivate and reward public sector employees, NPM introduces performance-based pay systems. This is intended to align individual and organizational goals and promote a culture of accountability.
  9. Focus on Efficiency and Cost Reduction: NPM places a strong emphasis on achieving efficiency gains and reducing costs. This is often achieved through restructuring, downsizing, and adopting lean management principles.
  10. Information Technology Integration: NPM emphasizes the use of information technology to enhance administrative processes, improve communication, and provide better access to information. This includes the implementation of e-government initiatives.

While NPM has been influential in reshaping public administration in many countries, it has also faced criticism. Some argue that an excessive focus on efficiency and market-oriented approaches can neglect social equity and the broader social goals of public services. The balance between managerial flexibility and the need for democratic accountability remains a subject of ongoing debate in the context of NPM.

b. Briefly discuss different Approaches to Policy- Making.
Ans:Policymaking involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to address societal issues. Various approaches guide this process, each offering a unique perspective. Here are several approaches to policymaking:

  1. Institutional Approach:

    Focus: Emphasizes the role of institutions and organizational structures.

    Key Elements: Examines how existing institutions shape policies, including the influence of governmental bodies, agencies, and legislative processes.

  1. Incremental Approach:

    Focus: Views policymaking as an incremental, gradual process.

    Key Elements: Assumes that policies evolve gradually through small adjustments rather than radical changes. It’s often based on past policies and experiences.

  1. GroupBased Approach:

    Focus: Highlights the role of interest groups and stakeholders.

    Key Elements: Considers the influence of various interest groups, advocacy coalitions, and stakeholders in shaping and influencing policies.

  1. Rational Comprehensive Approach:

    Focus: Advocates for a systematic, comprehensive analysis of policy alternatives.

    Key Elements: Involves a thorough examination of all possible policy options and their consequences before making a decision. It’s often associated with costbenefit analysis.

  1. Network Approach:

    Focus: Emphasizes the role of networks and relationships.

    Key Elements: Views policymaking as a result of interactions among various actors, including government officials, experts, and interest groups, within a network.

  1. Institutional Rational Choice Approach:

    Focus: Merges rational choice theory with institutional analysis.

    Key Elements: Considers how individuals and institutions make rational choices within the existing institutional framework, recognizing the impact of rules and norms.

  1. Advocacy Coalition Framework:

    Focus: Highlights the role of policy subsystems and advocacy coalitions.

    Key Elements: Views policymaking as the result of interactions among different advocacy coalitions, each with its own beliefs and policy preferences, within a specific policy subsystem.

  1. Punctuated Equilibrium Model:

    Focus: Views policy change as occurring in punctuated periods.

    Key Elements: Suggests that policy stability is followed by short bursts of rapid change, often triggered by external events or crises.

  1. Policy Entrepreneurship:

    Focus: Emphasizes the role of individuals as policy entrepreneurs.

    Key Elements: Views certain individuals as key actors who actively promote and drive policy change by identifying opportunities, building coalitions, and advocating for specific policy solutions.

  1. Postpositivist Approach:

     Focus: Critiques positivist and rationalist assumptions.

     Key Elements: Emphasizes the social construction of policies, the role of power, and the influence of values and discourses in shaping policy outcomes.

These approaches provide different lenses through which scholars and practitioners analyze and understand the complex process of policymaking. The choice of approach often depends on the specific context, the nature of the policy issue, and the underlying assumptions about how policies are formulated and implemented.

c. Define ‘Good Governance’ and discuss its characteristics.

Good Governance:Good Governance refers to the principles and practices that contribute to effective, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable, and inclusive decisionmaking and administration by government institutions. It ensures that power is exercised for the benefit of the entire population and in a manner that respects the rule of law, human rights, and ethical standards.

Characteristics of Good Governance:

  1. Transparency:

    Definition: Openness in decisionmaking and actions.

    Characteristics: Clear, accessible, and timely information is provided to the public. Decisionmaking processes are visible and understandable.

  1. Accountability:

    Definition: Answerability for decisions and actions.

    Characteristics: Public officials and institutions are responsible for their actions. Mechanisms exist for citizens to hold officials accountable, often through elections or independent oversight bodies.

  1. Participation:

    Definition: Involvement of stakeholders in decisionmaking.

    Characteristics: Encourages the active participation of citizens and other stakeholders in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies and programs.

  1. Rule of Law:

    Definition: Supremacy of law over arbitrary power.

    Characteristics: Legal frameworks are transparent, consistent, and applied equally to all. Institutions operate within the bounds of established laws and procedures.

  1. Effectiveness and Efficiency:

    Definition: Achieving objectives with minimal resources.

    Characteristics: Government institutions are capable of delivering services and implementing policies effectively and efficiently.

  1. Equity and Inclusiveness:

    Definition: Fairness and inclusivity in decisionmaking.

    Characteristics: Policies and services address the needs of all segments of society, without discrimination. Marginalized and vulnerable groups have equal access.

  1. Responsiveness:

    Definition: Timely and appropriate response to citizen needs.

    Characteristics: Government institutions are attentive to the concerns and aspirations of the public. They adapt policies and services to changing circumstances.

  1. Consensus Orientation:

    Definition: Seeking broad agreement among stakeholders.

    Characteristics: Decisionmaking involves consultation and dialogue to build consensus and minimize conflicts among different interests.

  1. Strategic Vision:

    Definition: Longterm perspective in decisionmaking.

    Characteristics: Government institutions have a clear vision and strategic direction, guiding policies and actions toward sustainable development and societal wellbeing.

  1. Ethical Conduct:

     Definition: Adherence to moral principles and values.

     Characteristics: Public officials demonstrate integrity, honesty, and ethical behavior in their roles. Ethical standards are embedded in the organizational culture.

Good Governance is essential for fostering trust between citizens and government, promoting social and economic development, and ensuring the effective functioning of democratic societies. These characteristics collectively contribute to creating a governance framework that serves the best interests of the public and upholds democratic principles.

d. Describe the factors which led to the emergence of Human Relations Theory.
Ans:The Human Relations Theory, which emerged as a response to classical management theories, was influenced by several factors that highlighted the importance of understanding human behavior and social dynamics in the workplace. Here are the key factors that led to the emergence of Human Relations Theory:

  1. Hawthorne Studies:

    Significance: Conducted at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in the 1920s and 1930s.

    Impact: The studies revealed that social and psychological factors significantly influenced productivity. Researchers, including Elton Mayo, observed that changes in working conditions alone did not explain variations in worker performance.

  1. Critique of Scientific Management:

    Significance: Scientific Management, advocated by Frederick Taylor, focused on efficiency and productivity but neglected the social and psychological aspects of work.

    Impact: Critics argued that the purely mechanistic and taskoriented approach failed to consider the human element, leading to dissatisfaction and resistance among workers.

  1. Social and Psychological Changes:

    Significance: Changes in society and psychology influenced workplace dynamics.

    Impact: The postWorld War I era saw an increased emphasis on human psychology, motivation, and interpersonal relationships. Scholars recognized the need to incorporate these aspects into management theories.

  1. Human Needs and Motivation:

    Significance: The work of psychologists like Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor.

    Impact: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y highlighted the importance of addressing human needs and motivations in the workplace. Theories emphasized that individuals are motivated by factors beyond monetary rewards.

  1. Shift in Focus to Informal Organizations:

    Significance: Recognition of informal groups and social networks within organizations.

    Impact: Human Relations theorists argued that informal relationships among workers significantly influenced their behavior and performance. Understanding these informal structures became crucial for effective management.

  1. Unionization and Workers’ Rights:

    Significance: The rise of labor unions and increased awareness of workers’ rights.

    Impact: The labor movement advocated for better working conditions, fair treatment, and employee rights. This highlighted the need for management theories that considered the social and psychological aspects of work to improve employee satisfaction.

  1. Emphasis on Leadership and Communication:

    Significance: Recognition of the role of leadership and communication in organizational success.

    Impact: Human Relations theorists emphasized the importance of leadership styles that fostered positive relationships and effective communication. The manager’s ability to listen, understand, and motivate employees became central to organizational success.

  1. Group Dynamics and Teamwork:

    Significance: Increased awareness of group behavior and dynamics.

    Impact: Human Relations Theory highlighted the significance of teamwork, collaboration, and group cohesion in achieving organizational goals. The focus shifted from individual tasks to understanding and managing group interactions.

The combination of these factors prompted a paradigm shift in management thinking, leading to the emergence of the Human Relations Theory. It acknowledged the social and psychological dimensions of the workplace, emphasizing the importance of human factors in organizational success. This marked a departure from the purely mechanistic and authoritarian approaches of classical management theories.


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